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Lecture 6

Psychology 320 lecture 6.docx

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Psychology 320 lecture 6 Quasi-experimental designs: are not considered experiments due to the inability of the experimenter to manipulate variables; therefore causation is not able to be implied Correlation to percent:  R=0.4  R^2=0.16 *100 = 16% of variance in one variable is accounted for by the second variable Research methods used today:  Case studies: examine an individual or small group o Assessment: direct observation, interviews (structured or unstructured), surveys, analysis of written text (helpful for obtaining information about people who are dead) o Example: Ehrhardt, Epstein, and John Money (believed that gender is learned)aged between 5-16 girls were studied with CAH (product of a lack of enzyme which produces cortizal, causing the andrenal grand to be overly active [making fetus have excess levels of testosterone]. This causes male looking gender. With an enlarged clit and infused labia). These girls identified as being girls; their mothers said that they were tomboys. Tests showed that these females were masculine. o Possible explanations: being told at birth these daughters conditions, the parents may have treated their daughters differently Meta-analytic studies  Enables us to take the result of many studies and combine them to make a single stat  3 steps o Obtain all published studies contrasting females and males on the characteristic of interest o Compute an effect size for each study (the magnitude of the difference between men and women) o Average the effect sizes across all studies  The most commonly used measure of effect size is d: o D: is the number of standard deviation units obtained between the mean score of females and the mean score of males o You can compute d for any variables (not just male and female) o D= (Xmales-Xfemales)/s o Xmales=mean score of males on the characteristic of int
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