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PSYC 331
Don Dutton

PSYC 331: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF EVIDENCE SLIDE 1 READ CHAPTER 3-6*** SLIDE 2 Spanos: did research on: is it possible to implant childhood memories SLIDE 3: WELLS & LOFTUS (2003) physical trace evidence lasts a long time there are specific protocols for physical evidence; however... SLIDE 4: ...eyewitness evidence doesn't have the same protocols; it was used first before it was scientifically tested SLIDE 5: when we witness something it gets stored in the brain, regardless of what happens after the event, memory stays true, it isnt effected when you are asked misleading questions... SLIDE 6: this notion was central to psychoanalysis: they were taught to look into someones past and see what their childhood issues were; Freud thought lots of issues were caused by unconscious, suppressed memories of sexual abuse SLIDE 7: EYEWITNESS ID Van Koppen & Lochen (described in text book); the only clear discription was the sex of the perp (this was the only factor people got right 100% when describing physical characteristics of a perp) SLIDE 8: CS IVAN HENRY he was identified by more than one witness DNAmatches are the gold standard for innocence/guilt SLIDE 9-12: police went through records and found henry who had a prior conviction Henry was forced into a lineup in which he was in a headlock (clearly looking guilty) he went to court and appeared pro se (meaning he didnt have a lawyer) SLIDE 13: the rapes kept happening after he was convicted police saw some issue in the Henry case and decided to re-open it they found another man whose DNAmatched 3 of the crime scenes and only got sentenced for 5 years SLIDE 14: SLIDE 15: SLIDE 16: foils or distractors: peope put in a lineup who are innocent; the foils should be similar to the suspect SLIDE 17: they more commonly use photo lineups simultaneous: you see one photo of everyone (perp and foils) sequential: you see photos one by one SLIDE 18: person conducting the lineup should be blind to who the suspect is SLIDE 19: Barry Sheck: part of the OJ Simpson case; has overturned over 300 wrongful convictions in the US many cases involving wrongful identification from witnesses SLIDE 20: DNAis not left in many crimes; it usuallyrequires physical contact with perp and victim SLIDE 22-25: THOMAS BREWSTER Sherry and her male friend are parked in wooded area, male is shot she is raped she works with a sketch artist Brewster was suggested as the perp, she said no its not him then they put him in a lineup and she says no 4 years later she still says no 7 years later diff police officers show her photo lineup and she says he looks familiar they go to court and she ID's him as the perp DNAwas found on her blouse the day she was raped and it didnt match SLIDE 28: ELIZABETH LOFTUS STUDIES has subject witness a complex event (usually a crime); then subjects get misleading info about the event and then they are called to report details about the crime those who get phony information say they have seen the misleading information; those who had no misleading info provided better recollection of true details SLIDE 31: SLIDE 32: PLANTING FALSE CHILDHOOD MEMORIES SLIDE 34: EXAMPLE STUDY: researchers interview a family and get true events and then they inject one completely made up event; they get a description of the place from the family and then create a fictitious event participants have to answer questions in a booklet and then they are interviewed 1 and two weeks later where they have to recall the events SLIDE 40: *******Ss=subjects Ss often add event details as they begin to believe that these false events happened to them SLIDE 41: people who are most susceptible to memory inplantation are high on dissociative experiences scale others listening to descriptions of events bythe participants could not distinguish which was false SLIDE 43: SELF PLANTED MEMORIES Ss asked if childhood events happened, then some of them were asked to image things happening, then given the list of events again, the subset of participants who were asked to image the false events were more likelyto remember false events as true SLIDE 46-53: SPANOS ETAL1996 pre test done to see personality differences of dissociation and temporal lobe Ss were told that they had this personalityconfiguration because they were born in a hospital with colored mobiles which caused eye movement hypnotic regression: people who were in this group were asked to look up, what do you see above your head? then they were asked, once they woke up, the extent to which they believed these events they described when they were hypnotized Guided mnemonic restructuring: asked to think about a time when theywere a certain age, asked the same questions as in the hypnotic group subjects took the memories as true when theywere hypnotized and not when they went through the mnemonic restructuring SLIDE 54: highly hypnotizable subjects are more likely to believe false information/events SLIDE 58-69: REMEMBERING SATAN Paul Ingram accused of sexual abuse by2 daughters when he is first given his accusation by the police he responds that he must be repressing this memorybecause he taught his daughters not to lie investigators say his memory will come back to him if he confesses his confession had many details the girls were part of a heart to heart group which talked about sexual abuse and this lead to several girls believing they had been abused SLIDE 83 dissociative amnesia: there is no way this person could have forgotten this event; people with this amnesia are hightly hypnotizable (suggestible) SLIDE 84 dissociative identity disorder (DID; multiple personality disorder) paul Ingram went into a trance like state while being questioned SLIDE 85-92 PTSD: to be diagnosed there has to be an actual event (this diagnosis was created for soldiers who had "shell shock"); then you react in one of the following ways: nightmares, you relive the event, anxiety attack person almost unconsciously avoids anything related to the trauma avoidance and recurrance along with a real life threatening experience are key to the diagnosis SLIDE 93 memories recovered under hypnosis were thought to be real; now it is seen that memories recovered under hypnosis aren't admissable as evidence Erika reads a book on satanic abuse and then says that was involved in the abuse SLIDE 94 REMEMBERING SATAN psychological testing on paul ingram while he is awaiting trial and is described as . . . (MMCI, MMPI) Robbie took and failed a polygraph Ofshe interviews Ingram: he gets Ingram to visualize a satanic witch ritual and told Ofshe what he thought he wanted to hear Ofshe made up a bogus accusation: forcing his daughters to have sex with his son Ingram says I dont remember this, but I guess it must have happened Ofshe tells him to pray on it The next day Ingram had had visualized and written up a detailed explanation of this event SLIDE 99 COURT OUTCOMES they found no evidence of satanic ritual Ingram pled guilty even though Ofshe pleaded him not to and he was sentenced Ingram kept a diary of things that for sure happened, that might have happened, and what he has no idea has happened He was then a registered sex offender From day 1 the detectives thought that Ingram was guilty and had a split personality SLIDE 102 if you assume that symptoms are from a specific event you then have proof for that event SLIDE 106 most research on trauma where there is a known trauma; people remember the event and do not repress it SLIDE 113 KASSIN: POLICE INTERROGATIONS what could generate a false confession: types of false confessions: 1. voluntary: police do not prompt anything and the perp confesses (they have some need for punishment) 2. compliant: person is induced to confess through the interrogation 3. internalized: not only confess but come to believe they committed the crime SLIDE 116 1/2 the time the confederate rats you out saying you hit the alt key data shows that false evidence realy jacks up the percentage of people who comply CREDIBILITYASSESSMENT: **read chapter 4 SLIDE 3: Ekman forensic work he studied the accuracy of detection of deception he showed them video tapes of people who were telling a story (some lied, some told the truth) secret service agents score the best at detecting lies Porter: liers have a split portrayal of the lie in their facial muscle movements SLIDE 7 Ekman replicated his study 8 years later and found that federal officers scored the best SLIDE 8 the ability to accurately detect decption wasnt related to: gender, age, etc. Just because you are sure you are good at it doesnt mean you are SLIDE 9 focus on face cues they generally expect people to tell the truth, its rare for federal officers; secret service agents to run across liars SLIDE 11 Pinocchio: nose grew when he lied; this is the belief that people have about when people lie; there must be some physical manifestation SLIDE 12 Polygraph tests SLIDE 15 there is an ongoing debate to use brain activity SLIDE 16 there are two types of polygraph tests 1. control question test; uses baseline questions (factual, easilyestablished if the person is lying or not), relevant questions (relevant to the crime), control questions (these are questions that might prompt someone to want to lie; these are designed to put the defendant on the defensive) you measure physiological response for all of these tests SLIDE 21 if a recorded reaction is stronger... they sum all scores which generates a total test score -6 or lower=deceptive 6 or more=truthful b/n -6 and 6: inconclusive SLIDE 22 there are no real standardized rules, they are subjective whe it comes to labeling things as noticeable, strong, dramatic there are individual differences in how people respond pjysiologically SLIDE 26 2. GKT: m/c test whch comes down to this: does the suspect have quiltyknowledge which only a guilty party would no SLIDE 27 as you read these questions to the suspect it is suspected that there will be a larger physiological response to the correct answer if they are indeed guilty SLIDE 30 counter measure studies subjects shown physical or mental countermeasures to bring your physiological response doesn to baseline it was found that 50% of subjects could pass the test SLIDE 31 True positive false positive (guilty), false negatives, tru positive (innocent) SLIDE 50 Undeutsch was the 1st forensic person who thought that there was a way to structure an interview and then evaluate responses ****INSERT NOTES FROM LAPTOP***** DETERRENCE SLIDE 2 the ultimate deterrence: hang people when they do something wrong--this didn't work-- people who went to watch the hangings were notorious for pickpocketing SLIDE 4 deterrence is compicated by: issues which go beyond the local government SLIDE 5 omnibus crime bill: controvercial bill SLIDE 6 it is harder on crimes; made the minimum sentence longer for crimes SLIDE 7 there is an issue if drug offences are going to swamp the prisons SLIDE 9 on the one hand there are going to be more people in jail; at the same time funding for the justice system has been lacking people aren't able to get into court in an unreasonable amount of time (this will become even more of a problem if more people are to be tried) SLIDE 10 specific deterrence: we commit a crime and the state throws you in jail and it scares you straight; works on the individual to stop them from commiting the crime again general deterrence: a threat which will have a bearing on people and stop them from committing a certain crime incapacitation: if someone is in jail they cant commit the crime again (not quite deterrence) SLIDE 12 swift: right after the act certain: every time you commit the act you will be punished severe: you dont want to commit the act again because you know the bad outcome and dont want to experience it again SLIDE 13 can the legal system take this swift, certain, severe approach in the criminal justice system? a number of things have to happen before someone is punished SLIDE 14 if a crime happens what is the probablilityit will be detected (will the victim come forward?) probability of arrest: is it an arrestable offence? can they catch him? do they know who the perp is? **each of these probabilities decrease the likelihood of a crime being punished SLIDE 16 extra sanctions: there is extra punishment over and above crimeAand over and above crime B if you do crime Awhile committing crime B SLIDE 18 look at SES, criminal sanctions, etc look at all these factors because they are all going to effect a crime rate it is hard to isolate deterrence from other factors making the effectiveness of deterrence weak at best SLIDE 22 economic position: inducing someone to do the legal/right thing SLIDE 23 you cannot legislate beyond the publics attitudes; this means there are limits for how severe a penalty is SLIDE 24 if you increase the severity you will get more plea bargaining due to the fact that the defendent will hire a better defence lawyer who will fight every step of the way SLIDE 27 how do you deter someone who is mentally insane SLIDE 28 people low on the drug hierarchy are those which are easily replaced and are often thrown under the bus when someone above them gets caught (the guy above them gives up the names below them for a plea bargain) SLIDE 31 incarceration serves: deterrence, incapacitation, didactic function (showing society that a certain action is wrong) SLIDE 36 you arent going to influence those who are already abiding by the law, and you arent going to influence those who think they can beat the system, you will only influence the group inbetween them SLIDE 55 deterrence works if you can keep surveillance at high rates SLIDE 56 the laws change everyday social behaviour SLIDE 66 both smart and dumb criminals are hard to deter smart criminals: convinced they can beat the system dumb criminals: dont know/care about the laws SLIDE 69 going to prison isnt going to deter everyone in the same way: some people like being in prison SLIDE 79 hollow threat problem: threat that there will be a big crack down; they will have to back off in servailence due to the lack of man power SLIDE 83 arrest becomes a political act this is a subculture whose values are inverted from the rest of society SLIDE 85 requires high detection rate is always a problem: in our free society there is always a question of how much survailence is too much SLIDE 94 one of the largest deterrence experiments ever inacted in north america was prohibition (making it illegal to sell alcohol) because saloons were thought to be bad and dangerous SLIDE 99 drunk boats: boats which would sail into international water to drink SLIDE 111 if there is no change in price then the law is having no effect. If it is working it is making the drug supply smaller thus raising the price SLIDE 113 net effect: the probability to going to prison for an offence declined; although if you did get convicted you got a harsher sentence SLIDE 115 how do you suppress these sales from Mexico when 8 million in US are using it SLIDE 116 it isnt true that most people who use it are hooked; most people give it up due to a lifestyle change SLIDE 122 87% failure rate in treatment SLIDE 135 Rockefeller drug laws **slide out of place** SLIDE 140 as the number gets higher it means theyare less harmful OCTOBER 25TH MIDTERM RISKASSESSMENT SLIDE 3 all risk assessment tools we look at strive to be accurate: the ideal tool gets nothing but true positives and true negatives when you measure the accuracy of a tool you count the hits (true positive and negatives) and substract the misses (false positive and false negatives) SLIDE 7 positive prediction power of a test is a measurement used: **divided by 10. not 100 SLIDE 8 you are going to falsely predict that someone is a problem when they're not=shotgun SLIDE 9 it is hard to predict rare events SLIDE 10 violent risk prediction SLIDE 11 3 stages in risk assessment 1. 1st generation: purely intuitive 2. second generation: based on identifying predictors of violence statistically; purely empirical 3. 3rd generation: a blend of one and two. Direct clinician about what they should ask along with using empirical evidence SLIDE 15 illusorycorrelation: clinician might think there is a connection between many things when there isn't SLIDE 16 the first big empirical risk assessment study participants had mental health problems looked to see if these people are violent after they are released and what was associated with it if they have done it in the past repeatedly chances are they will do it again there is a connection between being victimized through child abuse and violent offending later in life SLIDE 19 using predictors that are unlikely to change in an individual=static schemes ex. the fact that someone was abused as a child is a static factor SLIDE 20 they compare the person to their reference group (people like them) SLIDE 21 individual factors are added up to have a risk score SLIDE 23 one of the first and most promenint risk assessment scales was the VRAG SLIDE 24 3) DSM diagnosis in addition to psycopathy 4) the younger you are the ore likelyto reoffend you are 5) its a negative if they didnt live with both parents at age 16 6) were they ever released in the past with conditions attached to them? and did they violate that condition of release? if they did then it is a negative predictor 7) non violent crimes are also related to violent crimes 8) less likely to reoffend if they are married 9) axis 2 disorder= schizophrenia a predictor to be less violent 10) if, during prior voilence they injured a victim 11) alcohol problems (along with personality problems are a lethal com
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