Frequent pattern was a bilateral pattern, followed by women using more severe violence, followed by men using more severe violence. Pp 64 3 right hand column show what percent of %ipv reports (percent of the total population which indicated intimate partner violence) Showed that the most common is bilateral. National youth survey: all three are independent researchers, results are remarkable similar still, get younger groups, more reports of ipv. Same patterns are reproduced in 5 large sample studies. Most people find surprising because of the stereotypic ipv. Oregon youth survey, concordia longitudinal survey (looking at. Design: bring in people to experimental lab antisocial story of mating, discussed in aspd lectures: pick a topic that they would argue outside the lab. If it weren"t in a lab setting, really possible for ipv situation. Jacobson, margolin, leonard added alcohol to the treatment. Coercion traps and not gender: cdc reports that injuries admitted by women due to ipv was due to bilateral violence.