Recap: partner violence not best to explain it using sociology. Data shows that it"s more prominent that women are perpetrators. One factor that"s essential: set of factors will be talked about today. Book: research on men who were convicted of wife assault the abusive personality . Abusive personality initiate the unilateral partner violence. Not the major kind of partner violence but there"s repetition. Has problems with affect control tend to overreact. Behaviours: adolescent aggression, ipv (spouse abuse), substance abuse, gambling addiction. ***aside: mass murders have profound overreaction of how they think they are perceived by groups of people. Large sample study of young adults studied longitudinally. People who had intimate violence in relationship 1 also had violence in relationship. Stability of men"s ipv over time depended on whether the woman in. Evidence for both trait features and interactive features in ipv. There"s something that make them continue to act that way in relationship 2.