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Lecture 22

PSYC 361 Lecture 22: lecture22

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PSYC 361
Catharine Winstanley

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Stress and control Physiological effects of lack of control focus on development of ulcers Weiss 1972, 1977: rats hooked up to device which delivers electric shocks to tail. One rat can control the amount of shock received, the other is yoked to the master rat Both rats are shocked the same amount o Yoked not able to control o Master can control if the shock occurs master rat pokes nose into space and stops shock before it comes Only yoked rats developed stomach ulcers The perception of control People either try and control events (primary control) or adjust to events they cannot control (secondary control) such as: o Predictive control: even failure can become predictable and dealt with. Knowing you will fail and deal with it calmly o Illusory control: attributing random events to personal skill eg. Throwing dice o Vicarious control: belief that there is higher power in control, either divine or not o Interpretive control: finding meaning in uncontrollable events. Some greater force in control eg. God. Degree of secondary control reduces averseness of an event resilience to some stress related disorders eg PTSD Learned helplessness Dogs which are shocked in a situation from which they cannot escape, then fail to learn to avoid shock when given the opportunity. Prior exposure to shock from which they can escape does not inhibit learning of scape or avoidance responses Could be that they are more scared of CS Differs from avoidance learning experiment by amount of shocks administered The biology of being frazzled Stress impairs working memory key role for the prefrontal cortex Activation of amygdala, inhibition of prefrontal cortex Simple, habitual behavior is actually improved under stressful circumstances, yet more complex cognitive processes (sustained attentional, planning, strategy use) are impaired Now stress regulation now uses prefrontal cortex instead of primitive areas of the brain in fear and anxiety modulation
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