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Lecture 18

PSYC 361 Lecture 18: lecture18

2 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 361
Catharine Winstanley

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Deprivation effects Incentive motivational view: deprivation enhances incentive value rather than energising behaviour Tolman (1948): only hungry animals show latent learning - if sated, the food has no incentive value Alliesthesia: hunger makes food a better incentive, thirst makes water a better incentive. Reflects the palatability of the US Alliesthesia Can develop both positive and negative alliesthesia eg. Negative alliesthesia develops towards hot water when dehydrated from being in a hot environment, where positive alliesthesia develops toward cold or flavoured water Goal -directed behaviour and neural representations Behaviour is more sophisticated and flexible than S-R learning would allow Declarative memories include representations of the food and of how nice it is S-R habit learning relies on procedural memories ie. Memory for the motor program that has been strenghtened via associations with the reward Goal-directed behaviour and incentive value Incentive learning = willingness to work for it Hedonic value = liking something, related to something thats pleasant One condition - food injected with LiCl other condition - normal food Put back into box to test for extinction In both conditions rats perform the same Then introduce normal pellets Conditioned who were exposed to bad food pressed lever less Similar effects with satiety. o Animals trained to press lever for sugar pellets when food deprived o One group is then fed to satiety, the other is still food-deprived o In extinction, both groups respond the same amount on the lever o Animals are then presented with sugar pellets in the reexposure phase: either when food deprived or sated o Animals that are sated keep on working because they were deprived during the exposure phase Two value-processing systems Hedonic value system encodes changes in how much animals like the food Instrumental incentive value is how much the animal is willing to work for the reward o Reflects how much the animal WANTS the reward o Animals have to learn through experience that a change in the hedonic value of the food changes its incentive value. Active process, happens over time. No change in behaviour if there is a change in hunger state, still press lever regardless Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer Pavlovian conditioned stimuli can modulate instrumental performance If CS+ is presented whilst rat is pressing lever associated with food, rate of lever-pressing increases Turning on a condition stimulus thats associated with food will invigorate its food seeking behaviour and make more responses. CRf vs PIT Conditioned reinforcement vs Pavlovian-instrumental
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