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Lecture 18

PSYC 361 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Motor Program, Lithium Chloride, Procedural Memory

2 pages13 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 361
Professor
Catharine Winstanley
Lecture
18

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Deprivation effects
Incentive motivational view: deprivation enhances incentive value rather than energising
behaviour
Tolman (1948): only hungry animals show latent learning - if sated, the food has no incentive value
Alliesthesia: hunger makes food a better incentive, thirst makes water a better incentive. Reflects
the palatability of the US
Alliesthesia
Can develop both positive and negative alliesthesia eg. Negative alliesthesia develops towards hot
water when dehydrated from being in a hot environment, where positive alliesthesia develops
toward cold or flavoured water
Goal -directed behaviour and neural representations
Behaviour is more sophisticated and flexible than S-R learning would allow
Declarative memories include representations of the food and of how nice it is
S-R habit learning relies on procedural memories ie. Memory for the motor program that has been
strenghtened via associations with the reward
Goal-directed behaviour and incentive value
Incentive learning = willingness to work for it
Hedoic alue = likig soethig, related to soethig that’s pleasat
One condition - food injected with LiCl other condition - normal food
Put back into box to test for extinction
In both conditions rats perform the same
Then introduce normal pellets
Conditioned who were exposed to bad food pressed lever less
Similar effects with satiety.
o Animals trained to press lever for sugar pellets when food deprived
o One group is then fed to satiety, the other is still food-deprived
o In extinction, both groups respond the same amount on the lever
o Animals are then presented with sugar pellets in the reexposure phase: either when food
deprived or sated
o Animals that are sated keep on working because they were deprived during the exposure
phase
Two value-processing systems
Hedonic value system encodes changes in how much animals like the food
Instrumental incentive value is how much the animal is willing to work for the reward
o Reflects how much the animal WANTS the reward
o Animals have to learn through experience that a change in the hedonic value of the food
changes its incentive value. Active process, happens over time.
No change in behaviour if there is a change in hunger state, still press lever regardless
Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer
Pavlovian conditioned stimuli can modulate instrumental performance
If CS+ is presented whilst rat is pressing lever associated with food, rate of lever-pressing increases
Turig o a coditio stiulus that’s associated ith food ill iigorate its food seekig
behaviour and make more responses.
CRf vs PIT
Conditioned reinforcement vs Pavlovian-instrumental transfer
Conditioned reinforcement: Light is associated with light, rat presses lever and expends energy
doing it if it elicits the light.
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