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June 7_Taste.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 367
James Hyman

I. Taste 1. Taste/Gustatory anatomy:  Tongue map: different section of the tongue responsible for different taste. This is Wrong!  Instead, we have receptors for all different tastes located all over our tongue.  The Tongue: 1) Fungiform Papillae (cluster of taste buds. Three main types): mainly margins and tip of tongue, mushroom shaped (2 ), contain only one bud??or six? 2) Foliate Papillae: back sides of the tongue, look like a series of folds, each contains many different buds 3) Circumvallate Papillae: flat hills with circular trench, back of the tongue, each contain many different buds (3 ) 4) Filiform Papillae: No taste function, front of tongue (1 ), contain only one bud??  Taste Buds 味蕾 : a group of different cells; each bud contains 50 -150 cells; taste bud cells made up of active taste cells, basal cells, and other cells 1) Basal Cells: young taste cells that haven’t matured (the small round cells at the bottom) 2) Taste Receptor Cells: modified skin cells; just like skin cells, they have a limited life span-- individual taste cell will last just a few days. When they die they got replaced by basil cells that got matured. 3) Other cells: responsive to other stimuli besides chemical stimuli, that contribute to our sensation taste, such as temperature, pressure, and pain. 4) Microvilli: projections from the receptor cell that will open up into the surface of the tongue and get exposed to the saliva; they are extensions of the cell membrane. 2. Physiology of the Gustatory System:  How Taste Cells Transduce Taste into Neural Signal:  Transduction: generic cell-- there’s microvilli, nucleus, but it’s not a neuron, so no action potentials, but will release neurotransmitters to an afferent nerve, and the release will be provoked by an influx of calcium;  5 pure tastes: defined by the 5 tastes receptors; the input source must be water soluble or else we won’t taste it  Through Ion Channels (no receptor taken place): 1) Salt: something salty is broke down into Na+ and make it way into the sodium (Na+) channels at the microvilli of a taste receptor cell, and into our taste cell  depolarization of our taste cell  (when efficiently depolarized) opening of calcium (Ca2+) channelsCa2+ influx  neurotransmitter release  increase firing in the afferent nerve who carry the signal to the brain 2) Sour: sour substance broke down into hydrogen atoms (H+), taking in through the ion channelH+ goes in, K+(Potassium) goes out depolarization  …(same as above)  True Chemical receptor, lock-and-key mechanism: Receptors either is coupled to an ion channel itself or to G-protein (second messenger): activating the channel that is coupled to G-protein will lead metabolic changes in the cell. Those metabolic changes are then going to affect depolarization. 3) Sweet: sugar molecule comes in binds to some sweet receptorthe G-protein that’s binding with it got modified (temporally uncouple)the increase in cAMP production in the cell by-product: negatively charged ion in the cell to leave depolarize the cell…(same as above) 4) Umami: both types receptors—(1) receptor coupled directly with Na+ or Ca2+ channels, as a key, open the channel, ….(same as above), (2) Umami molecule comes in and binds to receptor, cause the G-protein uncoupled temporally  decrease in cAMP production through a series event (unknown) depolarization…(same as above) 5) Bitter: Two types of G-protein couple that leads to a chain of events 1) same as umami’s 2) don’t need to worry about the IP3 thing.  How to Code Stimulus:  Chorda Tympani: part of one of three cranial nerves that are involved in taste.  In 12 different individual fibers for a rat, we look at how
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