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3. May 17_Cortical visual processing_Ch.3.docx

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PSYC 367
James Hyman

I. The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus 1. Six Layers of LGN: 1) Lateral Geniculate Nucleus: A structure in the thalamus, part of the midbrain, that receives input from the retinal ganglion cells and has input and output connections to the visual cortex. 2) Think the six layers as 6 separate pathways. 3) Two different types of information:  Parvocellular layers: layer 1—4; receive input from P Cells which are: o smaller—smaller receptive fields, o important for color and fine detail; o High correlation of activity between cone and p cells, not perfect; o make up about 80% of ganglion cells; o receive input from single midget bipolar cells from single cones in the central retina.  Magnocellular layers: layer 5 and 6; receive input from M Cells which are: o larger—larger receptive fields, o important for low light vision and movement; o High correlation of activity between rods and m cells, not perfect (still some cones in M cells and vise versa); o make up about 10% of ganglion cells; o receive input from diffuse bipolar cells from hundreds rods spread out on one m cell (wider area).  No M cells at fovea, increase as remove further from fovea.  M cells and p cells response differently to stimuli: o P cells’ response is slower and sustained; tonic activity; the steady input allow to see fine detail. o M cells response faster; fire a burst while stimuli going on and off; no need to stay firing to see movement; see contracts in dark light.  Important to know which eye light comes from II. Mach Bands:  B appears darker than A, and D appears brighter than E.  E with both center and surrounding area exposed in light, but still above baseline, because the excitatory area is stronger than the inhibitory area. III. Area V1 1. V1 (primary visual cortex, striate c
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