In Class (32) Notes 11-23-2012
What do the media do to people?
o Audience injected with message
o Linear cause and effects of relationship
o Current media examples?
Problems with Perspective
Difficult to isolate effects of media
Other social influences act on people
E.g. gender roles, social class
What do people do with the media?
Stuart Hall: Encoding and Decoding
o Values and identities encoded into media products
o Audiences decode messages
Three Audience Positions
o Dominant – easily accept the message the media is sending
o Negotiated – accepted with some hesitation
o Oppositional – reject message the media is trying to give
Active Audience Theory
Reject hypodermic needle approach
Argue media content has "preferred meaning" - favored through structure
Viewer are not blank slates but are active agents of interpretation and criticism
o By focusing on micro choices made in interpretation
o Lose sight of macro structures shaping overall agenda
o E.g. Chinese trade deal - not a lot of people know about it though it will have an
incredible impact on our society
Balanced Media Analysis
Acknowledge power of meanings inscribed by media producers
Recognize how meanings are challenged and changed in act of reception E.g. protesters
Violence in the Media
Audiences learning from the media?
Relationship between simulated violence and actions/beliefs
Does media violence promote real-life violence?
Do media representations act as "models" to be acted upon in right circumstances?
Concerns about "vulnerable" audiences (children and teens)
E.g. "Natural Born Killers" - Columbine school shooting (quoted movie)