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Class 56 Global Stratification.docx

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University of British Columbia
SOCI 100
Debra Pentecost

Global Stratification 02-13-2013 In Class (56) Notes 02-13-2013 Global Stratification Global Patterns of Social Inequality Terminology  Post WWII o First World: high income, industrial o Second World: socialist o Third World: non-industrialized, low income  Present o High, Middle, Low Income Countries o Decide on basis of economic development o Not political systems Global Class Structure  See map 9-1, p231 o Economic Development in Global Perspective o High, Middle, Low Income countries o Low income – mostly in Africa o Distribution of Income  See map 9-1, p234 o Wealth and Well-Being in Global Perspective  See map 9-2, p234 High Income Countries  2010: 18% world‟s people (1.2 billion) live in wealth  income US #13,000-35,000  Where: North America, Europe, Australia, Western Europe, Japan (60 countries)  Enjoy 60% of world‟s income – shows imbalance  High-technology (industrial and information economy), urbanized, control world‟s financial markets Middle Income Countries  68% world‟s people (approx.. 4.8 billion)  Annual incomes: US $2,000-18,000  Where: Latin and South America, Former Socialist Countries, China (101 countries)  Some urbanization, limited industrialization  Still much agrarian life  Often densely populated, but depends on Low Income Countries  14% world‟s people – 15% of world‟s land  less than $3,000/year  Central and East Africa, Asia  Limited industrial technology  Mostly peasant farming – ½ live in cities  Massive poverty, disease and hunger are common Why does global poverty exist?  Technology o ¼ of people in low income countries use human or animal power to farm land  Population growth  Cultural patterns: Resist Innovations o Get rid of cultural beliefs that are holding them back from embracing new technology  Social stratification o Low income countries distribute wealth very unequally  Gender Inequality: must improve women‟s standing  Global power relationships (in historical sense – Colonialism) o Colonialism – political/economical control of other nations o Neocolonialism – new modern form of colonialism  Not direct political control  Economic exploitation by multinational corporations Theoretical Explanations for Global Class Structure Modernization Theory o Global inequalities due to technological and cultural differences o Political context is important:  Emerged 1950s  Structural functionalist base  Develop foreign policy emphasizing capitalism and free markets  Aim: counter Soviet Union and threat of socialism spreading to other parts of the world o Historical perspective:  Until recently, entire world was poor  Therefore, there is a need to explain affluence
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