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Origins of sociology

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SOCI 100
Chris Mac Kenzie

SOCI100Week 2 Class 2 LectureSept 1709Origins of SociologyEnlightenment disciplineSociology an True and not trueTruethe way we practise it today it is trueBut not true to say that it just magically appeared Construction of knowledge societies etcis a continual process of coming together of ideasSociology has been practised as long as weve been living in societies Have been asking question what is society How do we make it workx whats problematicfocuses on changes in our society that came about as a product of 3 revolutions in human historyoccurred 17001800s Why sociology has focused on these past 350 yearsin this time period have experienced social political economic changes that would be inconceivable to people living before that EnlightenmentChanged the way we thought about ourselves relationships between us where our abilities come from how we should order our societies how we should treat each other the way we should think about things analyze understandNew way of organizingthinking about ourselvesthis time period has fundamentally created our society todayKey Ideashuman rights freedomsthat individuals have certain inalienable rightsCase some people had privileges some didnt Privileges known as rights werent distributed throughout populationDuring Enlightenment idea that everybody should have rightsLiving in Scientic Agestarts to emerge in our thought processes that illogical that some people had privileges others didntPeople began moving to cities Much easier to keep population under control if dispersed Bringing people to dense areascommunication passes quicker More people talkingmaking demands Need to regulate these peopleThe centralizing of governmental powerNot the creation of govt but the reformulation of it Need to impose social order of a different kind Notions of democracy beginning to emergeThe reformation and centralization of educationPublic educationeducation for everybodyPrior to this people were being educatedbut only certain groups receiving formal education no standardizationThe growth of bureaucracies and administrative professionalsEmergence of modern bureaucraciesnew scalesophisticationAdministrative professions now popping upbeginning of white collar work service industrynot tradescraftsmen part of bureaucraticadministrative structureThe diminishing importance of religion tradition and customsDecline in role that religionold customsold traditions falling by waysideRole that religioncustoms play in shaping social policyPersonal religion still alive but societies reluctant to use those principles to shape social policymuch because of scientic revolution not logica rational fairfaithbased scripturesdo not withstand scientic scrutinyThe idea that inequality is not a natural thingmost importantUp to this point belief that thats the way it isRealization that there is difference between people physical intellectualbut how do we use those differencesInequalitynot difference Inequality is difference politicized Taken characteristic that makes one group different from another and used it for political endsto marginalize them Human naturecompetitive If can shape rules in my favour can have greater chances of staying on top Creation of lawstraditionscustomsbeliefs that keep others away from power Inequalitydeliberate Realize that we can change it The idea that society is a thing that can be studied Charles Montesquieuno different from human body tree animalEg Montesquieu writing letters to friends Tried to offer up satirical view of Parisian life If I was a tourist in Paris what would I think Take an objective view Stepping back from own society and viewing it as something removedan objectSocial ChangesEconomicConcerned with survival securing resourcesThen started to come up with stuff that is extrabut nothing dramatic Most of world was incredibly poor before EnlightenmentScientic RevIRThen market capitalism takes offmoneymaking potential increasesInvention of stock market modern banking interest rates modern system of loans speculation venture capitalismIncludes going to work with someone else As soon as we started working for someone else we became material In market terms we are an object Industrial TechnologyEconomically we went to work to produce thingsstuff to be made fast en masseTransportation systems to move goods fasterBeginning of consumer societygoing to work in factoryUrban GrowthEconomic quicker more efcient rational to move to cities to workPolitical ChangesTied in with idea of centralizing govtIf religion custom tradition falling away so was idea in monarchydivine right of kings Opening for modern parliamentary democracies
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