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Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

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SOCI 100
Debra Pentecost

Quantitative & Qualitative Methods October-01-12 Quantitative Research Methods  Durkheim: methods of natural science used for social science research Methods involve:  Counting & precise measurement of observable behavior  Generate/collect data  Make predictions Experiment  Testing a hypothesis  'Best' kind of 'science' o Sort of hierarchy --> "better" research is something quantitative with numbers  Test statement of possible relationship between 2 (or more) variables  Manipulate causes to determine effects  Highly controlled environment  Ethical problems  Hawthorne Effect: when people know they're being studied, they change behavior Survey Research  Asking questions  Respondents answer statements or questions  Questionnaire or interview  Useful for studying what cannot be observed directly  Obtain data from a "representative" population Sampling  A subset of individuals from a population to be studied  Representative o i.e. representative of students (as a whole, certain faculty, etc.)  Conclusions not generalized beyond population studied o i.e. UBC student study conclusions should not be applied to all universities Types of Samples  Random: participants are chosen by chance from total population  Cluster: sampling within sub-units o (i.e. faculties at school)  Quota: Conscious matching of sample to same proportions in total population o (i.e. there are 60% of students in Arts and 40% in Science, the sample ratio has to match)  Accidental/Convenience: Choose who is there at hand o (i.e. handed out surveys on the streets/malls)  Network: (snowball technique) Subjects asked to refer researcher to
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