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Global Stratification

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SOCI 100
Debra Pentecost

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Feb 13 Global Stratification Global Patterns of Social Inequality Terminology Post WWII - First World: high income, industrial - Second World: socialist - Third World: non-industrialized, low income Present - High, middle and low income countries o Decided on basis of economic development, not political systems Global Class Structure - Map 9-1, p 231 - Table 9-1, P 234 - Figure 9-2, p 234 High Income Countries - 2010: 18% world's pop (1.2 billion) - Income: US $13,000 - 35,000 - Where: North America, Europe, Australia, Western Europe, Japan,.. (60 countries) - They enjoy 60% of world's income - High-tech (industrial and information), urbanized, control world's financial markets Middle Income Countries - 68% world's people (approx. 4.6 billion people) - Annual incomes: US $2,000 - 18,000 - Where: Latin & South America, former Socialist countries, China (= 101 countries) - Some urbanization, limited industrialization - Still much agrarian life - Often densely populated, but this varies Low Income Countries - 14% world's people, 15% world's land - Less than US $3,000/year - Central & East Africa, Asia - Limited industrial technology - Mostly peasant farming, 1/3 live in cities - Poverty, disease and hunger common Why does global poverty exist? 1. Technology: o 1/4 of people in low income countries use human or animal power to farm land 2. Population Growth 3. Cultural patterns: Resist innovations 4. Social stratification: o income countries distribute wealth very unequally 5. Gender inequality: o Must improve women's standing 6. Global power relationships: o Colonialism  Political/economic control of other nations o Neocolonialism  Not direct political control  Economic exploitation by multinational corporations Theoretical explanations for global class structure - Modernization Theory - Dependency Theory Modernization Theory - Global inequalities due to technological & cultural differences - Political context is important o Emerged 1950s o Structural functionalist base o Develop foreign policy emphasizing capitalism and free markets o Aim: counter Soviet Union and threat of socialism spreading to other parts of world - Historical Perspective o Until recently, entire world poor o Therefore, need to explain affluence o Focus on period of Industrial Revolution o See technology + "spirit of c
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