Sociology 101 - pt. 1 of 2 This note has the entire lecture notes and the entire textbook summarized. With this, there is no need to even attend class as you can just study off this. Also, there are online tests throughout the course and you can easily co
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sociology 101 – first half.
the textbook. ravelli, bruce and michelle webber. (2009) exploring sociology!
sociology - the study of everything that people do.
major areas of sociological inquiry.
culture; how is exported, how is american culture defined as the way to do
socialization; how to become the person you are, primary /secondary sources
groups and organization; how does a university work, how does it function, how
do leaders get picked
crime and deviance; how are criminal justice works, how are some
characteristics defined as criminal
social stratification and class;
global stratification; how are countries of the world ranked
race and ethnic relations; racial profiling, perception
sex and gender; how do you genders grow up differently (hardwired or product
interactionists (or symbolic interactionists) interested in small group
interactions. how are meetings organized and conducted, how do leaders come
to be, what people do in classrooms, who’s getting rewarded.. the micro picture.
functionalism. functionalists look at society look and argue that the institutions
are working they way they are intended to. education, health care, government
are all working as we intended to. they see society as one large entity.
conflict approach. argues that functionalists are wrong. those who are well off
do well, and those are disadvantaged, don’t do very well. middle class people
design system for middle class people. those who don’t fit will fall behind.
feminists. none of the other stuff matters because the disadvantage and
advantages are based on gender. education , government, all exhibit their flaws
Charles Wright Mills
the sociological imagination - developing an appreciation of how individual
challenges are influenced by larger social forces.
seeing the general in the particular. think about what is familiar and see it as
engaging your sociological imagination.
our perception of ourselves and others are the product of many factors for
1) minority status
3) socioeconomic status
4) family structure
5) urban-rural differences
how have factors such as these affected the person you have become today?
the historical development of sociology!
the scientific revolution: 1650-1800
august comte (the father of sociology)
hard science should be applied to the social world
law of 3 stages:
theological- religious outlook, the world is an expression of god.
metaphysical - a period of questioning and challenging
positive - rules of observation, experimentation and logic
positivism (identifiable and measurable to find trends)
1. there exists an objective knowable reality
2. singular explanation
rejects each of the positivist assumptions
quantitative versus qualitative sociology.
quantitative sociology tends to be positivist in nature, measurable behaviour.
ex. crime rates over time.
qualitative sociology is anti-positivist in nature. non-measurable subjective
behaviour. eg. experiences of living in poverty.
the political revolution: the renaissance to the enlightenment.
machiavelli, descartes, locke, rousseau -> promotion of the individual rights and
social responsibility, equality of opportunity and the political ideology of
the industrial revolution: around 1750.
often associated with technological advancement, profound social changes.
(moving to larger cities to sell their labour), resulted in new social problems
macro and micro approaches
-macrosociology refers to attempting to understand society as a whole
-marx and durkheim (a quantitative social scientist)
-microsociology refers to attempting to understand individual or small group
Charles wright mills the sociological imagination - developing an appreciation of how individual challenges are influenced by larger social forces. Macrosociology refers to attempting to understand society as a whole. Microsociology refers to attempting to understand individual or small group dynamics classical social theories (1600-1750) --> theory. Theory is a statement that tries to explain how facts or events are related. Theory allows us to develop skills necessary to see the world in an alternative perspective. Each theorist offers unique insights into our social world. Survival of the fittest justifies why only the strong should survive (exploitation of the weak) Social darwinism draws upon darwin"s idea of natural selection; -> laissez-faire approach (opposes regulation of or interference with natural processes) emile durkheim * Human action originates in the collective rather than the individual. Social facts are general social features that exist on their own and are independent of individual manifestation. Mechanic solidarity describes early societies based on similarities and independence.