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Sociology 101 - pt.2 of 2 This note has the entire lecture notes and the entire textbook summarized. With this, there is no need to even attend class as you can just study off this. Also, there are online tests throughout the course and you can easily com

Course Code
SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

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Sociology 101 – pt2 of 2.
george herbert mead
stagel theorists
I. the element of the self that is spontaneous, creative, impulsive and at times
ME, helps to control the I, the self-reflective part of the consciousness that thinks
about how to behave.
Significant Others, those around us whom we want approval from (parents, peers,
Generalized other, the attitudes, viewpoints and expectations of society are
Role-taking, process of mentally assuming the perspective of another
mead`s development of SELF.
1. preparatory stage ( birth to age 3 )
2. play stage ( ages 3 to 5 )
3. game stage (elementary school years )
-primary socialization, secondary socialization
symbolic interactionism
-`looking-glass self` (cooley)
--> the imagination of our appearance to the other person
- the imagination of his judgment of that appearance
- some sort of self-feeling, such as pride or mortification
-elements of personality: the id (= I) , the superego, the ego.
psychosocial development (erik erikson)
-8 stages!!
agents of socialization
family, mass media, the peer group, school.
-social institutions : family, friendship groups, educational system, the media,
- media : influential agents of socialization; transmit values, behaviour, definitions of
social reality; reflect social relations and socialize the audience to them; media
violence - concern with imitation by children, a subtler influence: defining social
reality as violent leads to increased acceptance of real-life violence
changes within media
-two changes in media use: increasingly a solitary activity, rather than a social
- digital divide
the peer group
development of a frame of reference not based on adult authority
tempered my parental influence

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individuals spend a great deal of time education institution
socialization reproduces: gender, race, class distinction, adult family, and work roles
reproduction of gender - rejection of biological determinism
few behaviour that consistently
differentiate males and females.
gender socialization - parental reaction to innate differences
imitation of gendered behaviour in the child's social
media as source of gender stereotypes
reproduction of race - parents shape children's learning about race and race
child rearing among ethnic- and racial- minority families.
(ohana = fam)
reproduction of class - children begin at a very young age to absorb implications of
class in society
- alwin : change of emphasis in child rearing in north america
socialization for parenthood - anticipatory socialization for parenthood
socialization for employment - professional schools (eg. medical) teach students not
technical skills, but also how to behave like doctors
- selective recruitment from middle and upper classes
- phases in socialization from employment:
--> anticipatory socialization, encounter phase,
metamorphosis stage
resocialization - to completely abandon previous social skills in order to adapt to
new ways.
ex. military, mental institutions, prison
==== social inequality ==============
social stratification - societies' hierarchical ranking of people into social classes
principles of social stratification.
- meritocracy (success can be explained through the process of hard work and
- relatively stable (some social mobility)
- varies in how it presents itself (income vs. prestige)
- fair and just

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social class - based on both birth and achievements
social status - position within the class structure
social inequality
- inequality is the result of a system that ranks people from high to low on
- supported by dominant ideology rather than individual capability
classism - worth is determined by social and economic status
blaming the victim - working harder will alleviate poverty
blaming the system - systemic discrimination (conflict theorist mentality)
ranking individuals
social systems rank people in two ways: open system and closed systems.
closed systems are based on ascribed status. (ranked the moment of conception)
open systems are based on achieved status. (socio-economic status SES ) ; income,
occupational prestige and education
components of inequality
- property ; wealth and income
sociological approaches to stratification.
davis-moore thesis (1945)
-social inequality serves important social function, assists in developing society
-critiques: social status is often hereditary, substantial discrimination, market
forces, extreme
conflict theory
-social classes are a manifestation of completion between the haves and have-nots
(everyone’s competing for a limited number of resources)
-max weber critiqued marx`s sole focus on economic production
-social class is multidimensional, complex; social mobility is limited
-class, status groups and party
symbolic interactionism
-how people interpret and construct their responses to class inequality
-consider how people use and respond to status symbols
feminist theory
-recognize the working lives of women within capitalism
-role of class position in determining one's view of the world
--> armstrong and armstrong: double ghetto
-women in subordinate position inside and outside of the home
the canadian class system
erik olin wright (1996)
-forms of social control (a conflict argument: the powerful exploits the rest of us.)
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