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Exploring Sociology Chapter 3 Notes all content covered in chapter 3 of the textbook

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SOC 101
Sara Cumming

Modern Social Theories Modern social theories are not completely separate and different from the classical ones They do not being anew and the theorists continue to draw upon each others work Western Marxism Karl Marx believed that over time the proletariat would develop a common class consciousness and revolt against the bourgeoisie Western Marxism on the other hand refers to more independent and critical forms of Marxism The term was first used by the Soviet communist regime to refer to varied forms of Marxism that emerged after the 1920s in a rapidly changing Western Europe Theorists include Gyorgy Lukacs Antonio Gramsci Theodor Adorno Max Horkheimer Herbert Marcuse and Louis Althusser Gramscis Concept of Hegemony o Antonio Gramsci 18911937 help found the Communist Party in Italy in 1921 later imprisoned by Mussolini because of his opposition to fascismcontinued to think and write while his sister smuggled his notebooks out of prison o Gramsci agreed with Marx in that the ruling class dominated the subordinate working class struggle through both force and coercion police and military but he included a consideration for the ruling class subtle yet insidious ideological control and manipulation o Gramsci states there are two forms of political control o Domination direct physical and violent coercion exerted by the police and the military to maintain social boundaries and enforce social rules o Hegemony domination through ideological control and consent societys dominant ideas reflect the interests of the ruling class and help mask social inequalities o authoritarian regime needs consent not just power and armed force to enjoy longevity and stability rule hegemony of dominant groups ideas and cultural forms brings this consent of the subordinate class o Gramsci separated the economic base of society determining shape of social relations superstructure into o State coercive institutions such as police military government and system of laws o Civil society schools media religion trade unions and cultural associationsEstablishes hegemony through philosophy culture and morality that internalizes by population and appears as common senseExample in a capitalism people think those who are unemployed are lazy unproductive and without motivation while those who work hard are rewarded with financial success common sense
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