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3. Science cannot be separated from our values. Values are cultural assessments that identify
something as right, desirable and moral.
QUANTITATIVE VERSUS QUALITATIVE SOCIOLOGY
Quantitative Sociology is the study of behaviours that can be measured, while Qualitative Sociology is the
study of non-measurable, subjective behaviours.
The Political Revolution: Renaissance to the Enlightenment
The political revolution is known for the promotion of individual rights and social responsibility, equality of
opportunity and the political ideology of democracy.
The Industrial Revolution
During the industrial revolution a transition was made from Rural to Urban lifestyle, which lead to social
problems, such as child labour, poverty, malnourishment and exploding crime rates. The differences between
town-dwellers and city-dwellers became apparent.
MACRO AND MICRO APPROACHES
Macrosociology refers to attempting to understand society as a whole. Examples of macrosociologists
include Marx and Durkheim.
Microsociology refers to attempting to understand individual or small group dynamics. Examples of
microsociologists include Mead, Cooley and Blumer.
“SEEING” THE WORLD THEORETICALLY
Theory is a statement that tries to explain how facts or events are related. It develops skills necessary to see
the world from alternative perspectives. Each theorist offers unique insights into our social world.
Epistemology is the “ways of knowing”. For example, the positivistic epistemology would be to formulate a
theory and test it out with experiments. Positivists look at the objective reality. Anti-Positivists look at the
Classical Sociological Theory (1600 – 1750)
THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)
Hobbes argued that people are responsible for creating their social worlds. According to him, without society
we cannot be human. People are motivated by self-interest and the pursuit of power. We give up our rights
in exchange for the security society provides.
Natural state is the state at which humans existed prior to emergence of social structures.
JOHN LOCKE (1632 – 1794)
Locke suggested that it is God who is responsible for the immergence of society and government. He
introduced the concept of tabula rasa: people are born as blank slates, which society writes on. A person