Chapter 9 Notes v2.docx

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University of Fraser Valley
Business Administration
BUS 100
Kim Milnes

Chapter 9 – Motivating, Satisfying, and Leading Employees Forms of Employee Behaviour 1) Employee behaviour = pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirection influence the organization’s effectiveness 2) Performance behaviour = total set of work-related behaviours that the organization expects employees to display 3) Organizational citizenship= positive behaviours that do not directly contribute to the bottom line 4) Counterproductive behaviours = behaviours that detract from the organizational performance a) Absenteeism = when an employee does not show up for work b) Turnover = annual % of workforce that leaves and must be replaced c) Also theft/sabotage, harassment, aggression/violence Individual Differences among Employees 1) Personality a) The relative stable set of psychological attributes of a person b) Agreeableness – ability to get along with others c) Conscientiousness – number of things person tries to accomplish  High = fewer tasks, more organized, higher quality  Lowe = many tasks, less organization, quality may suffer d) Emotionality – degree to which people tend to be positive or negative in outlook/behaviour e) Extraversion – comfort level with relationships (Extro = outgoing, intro = shy) f) Openness – how open/rigid person is in beliefs/ideas g) Emotional intelligence = extent to which people are self-aware, can manage they emotions, self-motivate, express empathy/sympathy 2) Attitudes a) A person’s beliefs and specific ideas, situations or people b) Job Satisfaction  Extent to which people have positive attitude towards their jobs  Related to morale (attitude toward job)  Sense of accomplishment employees feel from performing jobs well c) Organizational Commitment  An individual’s identification with the organization and its mission Matching People and Jobs 1) Psychological Contracts a) Set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he will contribute to organization, and what he will get in return (inducements – salary, bonuses, parties, etc.) 2) Person-Job Fit a) The extent to which a person’s contributions and the organizations inducements match 3) Motivation a) The set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways b) Classical Theory of Motivation  Presumes that workers motivated solely by money  Scientific management = analyzing jobs and finding more efficient ways to do them  Time-and-motion studies = use of industrial-engineering techniques to study every aspect of a specific job to determine how to perform it most efficiently c) Early Behavioural Theory  Hawthorne effect = tendency for workers’ productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention from management Human-Resources Model: Theories X and Y 1) Theory X = management approach based on belief that people are naturally lazy/irresponsible/etc. 2) Theory Y = management approach based on belied that people are productive because they are naturally energetic, responsible/etc. 3) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Model a) Theory of motivation describing 5 levels of human needs are arguing that the basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs b) Physiological needs = for survival, food, shelter, sleep c) Security needs = stability and protection d) Social needs = friendship and companionship e) Esteem needs = status, recognition and respect f) Self-actualization needs = self-fulfillment, grow/develop 4) Two-Factor (Motivator-Hygiene) Theory a) Identifies factors that must be present for employees to be satisfied with their jobs and factors that, if increased, lead employees to work harder b) Hygiene factors = working conditions, interpersonal relations, pay, job security c) Motivation factors = recognition, responsibility, advancement, achievement 5) Contemporary Motivation Theory a) Expectancy Theory = people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and believe they have a chance of obtaining b) Equity Theory = people compare (1) contribution vs. return (2) their input/output with that of other employees Strategies for Enhancing Motivation 1) Reinforcement/Behaviour Modification a) Reinforcement = controlling/modifying employee behaviour through the use of systematic rewards and punishments for specific behaviours  Positive reinforcement preferred method as it contributes to good relationships b) Most eff
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