BIOL1006 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Cadherin, Morphogen, Cell Adhesion

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25 Jun 2016
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Lect 16
cell mov’t - changing patterns of cell adhesion
cadherins - used in cell-to-cell interactions
transmembrane proteins that mediate Ca++ binding
cells w/ similar cadherins tend to go together
cells w/ most cadherins in interior, cells w/ least cadherins on outside
integrins - used in cell-to-substrate interactions (involving
interactions w/ extracellular matrix)
used when most of tissue made up of spaces between cells (ECM)
connects cytoskeleton to the ECM
can change cytoskeleton growth, way cell secretes materials
induction - cell changes due to interactions w/ another cell
mosaic development - in Drosophila, where determinants
(developmental signals) guide cells on different development paths
regulative development - in mammals where cell-cell interactions
determine development
proteins used as intercellular signals
organizers - groups of cells that produce signals for position to other
cells
tells other cells of distance to organizer
morphogen - signal molecule for determining relative position
determination - cell’s commitment to a certain developmental path
early cells totipotent, all capable expressing of their genes
chimera - organism w/ cells from different genetic lines
differentiation occurs at the end of developmental path, not the same
thing as determination
positional labels - shows cell’s location in embryo, influences how
body develops
cloning of Dolly the sheep on July 5, 1996 from fully-differentiated
sheep shows that determination can be reversed
pattern formation - unfolding process that lays down the basic body
plan
currently only fully understood for Drosophila
sets up anterior/posterior, dorsal/ventral axis
bicoid protein gradient - determines anterior/posterior axis w/ aid of
dynein (protein oskar also plays role for posterior determination)
accumulation of certain mRNA on 1 side of cell determines
dorsal/ventral axis
polarity found by interactions between follicle cells and oocyte (egg)
gap genes - map out the subdivision of the embryo
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