BIOL1006 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Transfer Rna, Central Dogma Of Molecular Biology, Uracil

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25 Jun 2016
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Lecture 10
using RNA for protein -
ribosomes - RNA-protein complexes that make polypeptides
has 2 subunits
RNA acts as main catalytic unit, ribosomal proteins has structural role
protein synthesis occurs at P, A, and E sites
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - type of RNA in ribosomes
provides the site where polypeptides get assembled
transfer RNA (tRNA) - transports/positions amino acids
messenger RNA (mRNA) - long RNA strands transcribed from DNA
reads genetic messages in DNA and produces the proteins that the
DNA asks for
central dogma - aka gene expression; info passes DNA > RNA >
proteins
transcription - transfer of info from DNA to RNA
produces mRNA
starts when RNA polymerase binds to promoter binding site
creates complementary transcript (uracil in place of thymine)
translation - transfer of info from RNA to protein
directs sequence of amino acids
each group of 3 nucleotides codes for an amino acid
rRNA reads the mRNA to make the polypeptide chain
genetic code - consists of codons (blocks of information)
same in almost all organisms
supports belief that all organisms have the same root
mitochondria/chloroplasts read code differently
each codon corresponds to a specific amino acid
3-nucleotide sequence in each codon (triplet code)
reading frame - part of genetic code being read by mRNA
removing a single nucleotide or 2 would mess everything up
triplet binding assay - developed by Nirenberg/Leder to see which
radioactive amino acid the triplet binded to; tested all 64 possible
combinations
mRNA can be transferred from 1 organism to another and still work
transcription in prokaryotes -
RNA polymerase - has 5 subunits
2 a subunits bind regulatory proteins
b' subunit binds DNA template
b subunit binds RNA nucleotide subunits
s subunit starts synthesis, recognizes promoter
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