BIOL1006 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Protein Folding, Active Transport, Adenosine Triphosphate

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9 Aug 2016
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Lecture 16
All substances that move through the membrane do so
by one of two general methods, which are categorized
based on whether or not energy is required.
Passive transport is the movement of substances across
the membrane without the expenditure of cellular
energy.
During this type of transport, materials move by simple
diffusion or by facilitated diffusion through the
membrane, down their concentration gradient.
Water passes through the membrane in a diffusion
process called osmosis.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a semi-
permeable membrane down its concentration gradient.
It occurs when there is an imbalance of solutes outside of
a cell versus inside the cell.
The solution that has the higher concentration of solutes
is said to be hypertonic and the solution that has the
lower concentration of solutes is said to be hypotonic.
Water molecules will diffuse out of the hypotonic solution
and into the hypertonic solution.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a
semipermeable membrane down its concentration
gradient.
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