BIOL1006 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Logarithmic Scale, Nucleoid, Peptidoglycan

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9 Aug 2016
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Lecture 11
A plasma membrane: an outer covering that separates
the cell's interior from its surrounding environment.
Cytoplasm: a jelly-like cytosol within the cell in which
other cellular components are found DNA: the genetic
material of the cell ribosomes: where protein synthesis
occurs.
Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotic cells in several ways.
A prokaryote is a simple, single-celled organism that
lacks an organized nucleus or any other membrane-
bound organelle.
We will shortly come to see that this is significantly
different in eukaryotes.
Prokaryotic DNA is found in a central part of the cell: the
nucleoid.
Most prokaryotes have a peptidoglycan cell wall and
many have a polysaccharide capsule.
The cell wall acts as an extra layer of protection, helps
the cell maintain its shape, and prevents dehydration.
The capsule enables the cell to attach to surfaces in its
environment.
Pili are used to exchange genetic material during a type
of reproduction called conjugation.
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