BIOL1006 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Ribosomal Rna, Messenger Rna, Transfer Rna

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9 Aug 2016
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Lecture 4
The two main types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic
acid and ribonucleic acid.
DNA is the genetic material found in all living organisms,
ranging from single-celled bacteria to multicellular
mammals.
It is found in the nucleus of eukaryotes and in the
chloroplasts and mitochondria.
In prokaryotes, the DNA is not enclosed in a
membranous envelope, but rather free-floating within the
cytoplasm.
The entire genetic content of a cell is known as its
genome and the study of genomes is genomics.
In eukaryotic cells, but not in prokaryotes, DNA forms a
complex with histone proteins to form chromatin, the
substance of eukaryotic chromosomes.
A chromosome may contain tens of thousands of genes.
Many genes contain the information to make protein
products; other genes code for RNA products.
DNA controls all of the cellular activities by turning the
genes "On" or "Off."
The other type of nucleic acid, RNA, is mostly involved in
protein synthesis.
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