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Biology 1001 Patten Lectures

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University of New Brunswick Fredericton

Biology 1001 Lecture 1 What is life Biology is the study of life What are some of the properties of life that distinguish it from nonlifeBacteria growth increase of cellViruses noncellularHomeostasis ability to maintain themselves in their environment interallyConsuming energy living things need to take in nutrients for energy to build cellular material and activitiesFermentation Living things growUnicellular organisms growth is an increase in cell size and the number of cells in a populationMulticellular organisms growth is an increase in the number of cells that make up the organism Living things reproduceProduce new cells or organismsPass on genetic information Living things obtain and use energyThey obtain energy from the environmentThey use energy to power their activitiesThey transform energy from one form to anotherMetabolism chemical reactions in cellsNutrients supply energy and raw material for biochemical reactions The Sun is not necessarily the ultimate source of energy Some organisms can use chemicals that dont contain carbon to produce carbohydrates A prime example in the bottom of the ocean sunlight cant reach Living things regulate their internal environmentThey maintain an optimal internal environment to carry out processes necessary to sustain lifeHomeostasisSense and respond to environmental changesFor protein activity they need to be able to maintain their pH If enzymes die off because the internal environment isnt of the ideal setting we dieOrganisms adapt to their external environment and change their internal environment to survive Living systems evolveAccounts for the unity and diversity of lifeShared features among organisms suggest a common ancestorHeritable changes have occurred that enhanced survival and reproduction in an environmentWhy are there spotted jaguars and black jaguars o A gene encodes an enzyme that is involved in the synthesis of tan pigment o A mutation has occurred in a gene that alters the function of the enzyme so that the black pigment is made o Spotted jaguars are more successful hunting in grasslands o Black jaguars panthers are more successful hunting in the forest Life has different levels of organizationThe biosphereEcosystemsCommunitiesPopulationsOrganismsOrgans and organ systemsTissuesCellsOrganelles and subcellular structuresAtoms and molecules Ecosystem Human StomachAll of the organisms live together in an environment including the nonliving things that they interact withHaving a community of bacteria in the stomach is seen to be healthier than those who dont Community of intestinal microorganismsAll of the organisms are in an ecosystemIe eukaryotes prokaryotes and viruses Population of Escherichia coli cells E coliAll of the individuals of a species live in an ecosystemE coli is a pathogen The cell is the fundamental unit of life The following is the definition of a cellLowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for lifeTakes in and uses energyGrowsRegulates internal environmentResponds to the environmentGives rise to new cells Prokaryote vs EukaryoteProkaryote bacteria do NOT have a membrane enclosed nucleusEukaryote everything else has a membrane enclosed nucleus It has an extensive endomembrane systemDefined by the presence of a nucleus and other membraneenclosed organelles All living organisms are made of cellsDiatoms singlecell eukaryotesAmoeba a protozoan a singlecell eukaryoteBacteria singlecell prokaryotesMolds fungi single and multicellular eukaryotic cellsElodea an aquatic plant a multicellular eukaryoteHumans multicellular eukaryotes Subcellular structures on outer surface of pathogenic E coli cells enable tight association with human gut epithelium The little arms made up of proteins attach to our intestinal walls to keep from being flushed out Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid monomers Human intestinal large epitheliumPathogens can degrade the epithelium and attach to the underlining cells E coli induces changes in gut epithelial cells that lead to formation of pedestals It starts to secrete things into our cells and our cells change from the protein that is secreted into them They will not be able to absorb nutrients or water very efficiently Antibiotics target specific bacterial subcellular structuresBetalactam antibiotics target bacterial cell wallPenicillin is a betalactam antibiotic Penicillin targets the bacteria cell wall Ie penicillin is produced by penicilliumThe basic structure isCalled a betalactam antibiotic because of the betalactam ring in the cell structureThese antibiotics cause the bacterial cells to rupture However bacteria can develop resistance to antibioticsSome bacteria secrete a protein that destroys betalactam antibioticsProtein is the enzyme betalactamase can tell its an enzyme due to the suffix ase Modified antibioticsSame basic structure different functional groupsStill destroys the cell wallBut its not easily destroyed by betalactamases Some E coli cells acquire resistance to modified antibioticBacteria acquire random mutations when they reproduceE coli may acquire a mutation that alters the structure of betalactamaseAltered betalactamase may degrade modified antibioticsChanges in molecular structure can have a major impact on function Gut bacterial community evolves
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