CHEM1006 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Sigma Bond, Octet Rule, Pi Bond

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1 Aug 2016
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Lecture 18
Covalent bonds are a class of chemical bonds where
valence electrons are shared between two atoms,
typically two nonmetals.
The formation of a covalent bond allows the nonmetals to
obey the octet rule and thus become more stable.
If it shares one electron with a carbon atom, the fluorine
will have a full octet.
Covalently sharing two electrons is also known as a
"Single bond." Carbon will have to form four single bonds
with four different fluorine atoms to fill its octet.
Covalent bonding requires a specific orientation between
atoms in order to achieve the overlap between bonding
orbitals.
Covalent bonding interactions include sigma-bonding and
pi-bonding.
Sigma bonds are the strongest type of covalent
interaction and are formed via the overlap of atomic
orbitals along the orbital axis.
The overlapped orbitals allow the shared electrons to
move freely between atoms.
Pi bonds are a weaker type of covalent interactions and
result from the overlap of two lobes of the interacting
atomic orbitals above and below the orbital axis.
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