FNAT2703 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Third Dynasty Of Egypt, Ancient Egyptian Architecture, Narmer

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29 Jul 2016
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Lecture 2
INTRODUCTION: The pyramids and sphinx of Egypt represent monuments that were built by a
people who dominated Mid Eastern life for thousands of years.
The Pre-dynastic period lasted from 4350-3150 BCE. It was a time of social and political
transition.
Finally in 3150, under the leadership of Menes, Upper and Lower Egypt were united as one
kingdom.
From this time on, pharaoh's ruled Egypt as absolute kings who received their powers from the
gods.
It was during the Old Kingdom, that the traditions and standards of Egyptian art were
established.
Rules of construction and composition were established between Dynasty III and IV. Palette of
Narmer Dynasty I,, c3150-3125 BCE ARCHITECTURE-One of the most important figures in
Egyptian architecture was Imhotep, chancelor and court architect under Djoser.
During the Early Dynastic period, funerary rites became an essential part of Egyptian culture.
In keeping with this, the Egyptians created elaborate structures to help protect and preserve
the bodies of the dead. Mastabas, flat topped, one-story buildings were first erected above
underground burial chambers.
Mastabas were replaced during Dynasty III and IV to create elaborate and expensive pyramids
to house their remains.
Stepped Pyramid of Djoser Dynasty 3,, c2681-2662 BCE Wall of North Palace, w/ engaged
columns, Dynasty 3, c2681-2662 Great Pyramids Dynasty 4,, c2601-2515 BCE Great Sphinx
Dynasty 4,, c2570-2544 BCE SCULPTURE-Sculpted statues of themselves were very important to
the pharaohs as a means of perpetuating their memories and protecting their "Ka".
All early Egyptian sculpture is characterized by compactness symmetry of form and its block-like
shape Khafre Dynasty 3,, c2570-2544 BCE Menkaure and His Wife Dynasty 4,, c2515 BCE Seated
Scribe Dynasty 5,, c2510-2460 BCE RELIEF SCULPTURE & PAINTING-Relief sculpture and painting
were two ways used to decorate the interior walls of the tombs and create pleasant eternal
living quarters for the deceased's "Ka".
Middle Kingdom One hundred years of political disorder followed the end of the Sixth Dynasty.
Regional overlords struggled for power and were too weak to protect the empire from invaders
from Western Asia.
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