com 240 Lecture Notes - Cognitive Dissonance, Fixed Capital, Online Magazine
Course Codecom 240
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product positioning using perceptual maps
finding out how consumers perceive a firm's product relative to those of competitors is
essential in developing a positioning strategy. perceptual maps, a means of displaying or
graphing in two dimensions the location of products or brands in the minds of consumers,
can be used to try to understand consumer perceptions.
product repositioning involves changing the place an offering occupies in a consumer's
mind relative to competitive offerings:
1. positioning milk drinks for children
2. repositioning chocolate milk for adults
1v. sales forecasting techniques
market potential or industry potential refers to the maximum total sales of product by all
firms to a segment during a specified period of time. sales or company forecast refers to
the total sales of product that a firm expects to sell during a specified period of time.
a. judgements of the decision maker
a direct forecast means estimating the value without intervening steps by the
individual decision maker. a lost-horse forecast involves using the last known value and
then modifying it according to positive or negative factors expected in the future.
b. surveys of knowledgeable groups
ask knowledgeable people who are likely to know something about future sales. a survey
of buyers’ intensions forecast asks potential customers. a salesforce survey forecast asks
the firms sales people for a forecast.
C. statistical methods
trend extrapolation involves extending a pattern observed from past data into the future.
linear trend extrapolation is when the trend is a straight line.
cpm = cost of ad / circulation * 1000
cpm (cost per medium) is the cost of your advertising per 1000 potential people viewing
to calculating cpm you must know the following information:
circulation of the medium: e.g. your advertisement reaching 1500 readers.
the advertising price for the advertisement: e.g. adverting cost is $40
example of advertising in an e-zine:the price of the advertising is $40 for a classified
ad, and the circulation reaches 1500 people.
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