PHIL 202-3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Shang Dynasty, Four Books And Five Classics, Animism

63 views10 pages
20 May 2018
School
Department
PHIL 202
Ch. 10 Chinese and Korean Traditions (pt. 1)
Overview
Religion inextricably linked to politics
Social harmony
o Generally tolerant, inclusive and syncretic ethos
Animism and shamanism still found in practices that deal with insecurities in life
Sanijao
o Three (san) teachings, philosophies, or religions (jiao) of Confucianism, Daoism,
and Buddhism
Elite traditions
Folk tradition is the fourth
The Classical Period to the Qin
(c. 2300 BCE202 BCE)
Confucian Beginnings
Not all began with Confucius (c. 551479)
Other two classic philosophers are Mengzi (c. 343289 BCE) and Xunzi (c. 310219 BCE)
Beginnings can be found in the Five Classics:
o The Classic or Book of Changes
o The Classic of Documents or Book of History
o The Classic of Odes or Book of Poetry
o The Records or Book of Rites
o The Spring and Autumn Annals
Cofucia Begiigs, cot’d
Standardized during the Han dynasty (202 BCE220 CE)
Provide the ideology behind government policy
Blueprints for family relations
Guides for moral and spiritual transformations
Cofucia Begiigs, cot’d
The Classics show transition in worldview
o Supernatural to impersonal natural principles
Contain descriptions of deities, ghosts and spirits, and the rites (li) performed
Also contain philosophical examination of the natural principles
Goal: creation of a harmonious society through self-cultivation
Confucian Concerns
Four broad areas:
o Individual, familial, political, cosmic
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Exemplary Confucian (junzi)
Harmony in the public world cannot be achieved without harmony in private world
Sacrifice and rituals are symbolic expressions of the relationship between inner and
outer worlds
Ancestor rituals encourage right relationships
Cofucia Cocers, cot’d
Five types of relationships
1. Ruler and minister
2. Parent and child
3. Husband and wife
4. Elder and younger siblings
5. Friends
Must be guided by ren (goodness, humanness, benevolence, compassion)
Every relationship except friends is between a senior (first in pair) and a junior (second
in pair)
1. Senior in relationship is expected to take into account the effects of their actions
on others
2. Junior is expected to be upright and loyal
Confucian Exemplars and Sages
Three prototype sages
o Yao, Shun, Yu
o Embody civil, familial and filial virtues
o Their stories, found in the Classic of Documents, are critiques of rule by force
Yao made sure everyone was well fed and prosperous
Shun triumphed over adversity
Yu worked with nature instead of against it
Divination and the Pantheon of Spirits
Elements of right governance and belief in divine intervention (revelation to the king)
Spirits held the real powerreligious rituals were indispensable
Lord-on High (Shangdi): sky god
o Ancestor of Shang clan
Nature spirits, celestial spirits, Former Lords, human ancestors
The Mandate of Heaven
Context of power shift from Shang to Zhou in 1064 BCE
Emphasis on loyalty and moral character
Good governance was a duty to Heaven
Mandate to rule is taken away from cruel rulers
god di eoes assoiated ith politial ruler
Heaven is an impartial, cosmic moral force
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Cares for human welfare
Humanization: The Transition from Shang to Zhou
Idea of Heae displaes persoal Lord o high
Divination materials used change from bone and shell to plants
Shift stresses advancement of human well-being
o Natural processes and human relationships
o Quest to find the natural foundation of society
Yijing (Classic of Changes)
o 64 hexagrams
o The Wa of the uierse
o Guide for a cosmos in flux
Rites: Performance and Principles
Principle of complementarity
Ruler must have a wife as a helpmate
o Division of labour = balance
Balance between yin and yang
o Qian: heaven and the creative
o Kun: earth and the receptive
Rites evolved over time
Sense of value for discipline, education and moral development
o Spirits are attracted to virtue
Confucius
Transmitter of tradition
Respeted ithout ritual eoes tiresoe, iruspetio ithout ritual eoes
timidity, bold fortitude without ritual becomes unruly, and directness without ritual
eoes tisted “oer : .
Li: rites or ritual
o In everyday conduct, in all relationships
Sage kings were preceded by a utopian age
o Grand Commonality
Cofucius, cot’d
Primary source of teaching: the Analects
Ideal of junzi
o Person of noble character
o Demoral power rooted in ethical behaviour
o Renrespect, liberty, trustworthiness, kindness
Cultivated through li
Emphasized filial piety or devotion, loyalty and reciprocity
“iler rule: What ou ould ot at for ourself, do ot do to others :
Master of the heart-id xin)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 10 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+20% off
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers
Win an iPhone 13
Get a subscription and follow @oneclass.store on TikTok for a chance to win an iPhone 13. Learn more

Related Documents