PHIL 202-3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Kamakura Period, Hongan-Ji, Bhavacakra

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20 May 2018
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PHIL 202
Ch. 11 Japanese Traditions (pt. 2)
New Emphases in Japanese Religious Practice
New Sects in the Kamakura and Muromachi Periods
Three new types of Buddhist practices emerge during the Kamakura period (11851333)
o Pure Land, Nichiren, Zen
Mappo: degenerate time
o Social and political disorder
o Worldly disasters: earthquakes, famine, typhoons
Pure Land Salvation
Buddhism started attracting common people after Genshin (9421017)
o Essentials of Salvation (985)
Six realms of existence
o Hell, hungry ghosts, demonic beings, animals, human beings,
heavenly beings
o Must pass through all realms, in multiple incarnations, before
reaching perfection in the Pure Land
Pure Lad “alvatio, cot’d
Tendai monk, Honen (11331212)
o Only hope lay in Amida
Does not discriminate
“alatio through siere faith ad repeated reitatio of namu Amida
Butsu the nembutsu)
Opened way to universal salvation
Radical because showed no difference between the ordained and the
laity
Around 1450, Renyo systematized teachings, and created a militant security force to
protects the Honganji Temple
Rinzai Zen and Kamakura Culture
Seated meditation (zazen) is the path to enlightenment and salvation
Tendai monk Eisai (11411215)
o Studied Chan in China twice
o Brought other elements of Buddhist and Confucian teachings to Japan
Drik Tea ad Prolog Life
o Attracted to artistic expression and discipline of Chan/Zen
Relationship with ruling samurai
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Document Summary

New sects in the kamakura and muromachi periods: three new types of buddhist practices emerge during the kamakura period (1185 1333, pure land, nichiren, zen, mappo: degenerate time, social and political disorder, worldly disasters: earthquakes, famine, typhoons. Pure la(cid:374)d alvatio(cid:374), co(cid:374)t"d: tendai monk, honen (1133 1212, only hope lay in amida, does not discriminate, al(cid:448)atio(cid:374) through si(cid:374)(cid:272)ere faith a(cid:374)d repeated re(cid:272)itatio(cid:374) of (cid:862)namu amida. Butsu(cid:863) (cid:894)the nembutsu: opened way to universal salvation, radical because showed no difference between the ordained and the, around 1450, renyo systematized teachings, and created a militant security force to laity protects the honganji temple. Soto zen: the gradual path (cid:862)gradual e(cid:374)lighte(cid:374)(cid:373)e(cid:374)t(cid:863) through (cid:862)just sitti(cid:374)g(cid:863: tendai monk dogen (1200 53) If humans are born with an innate buddha-nature, as tendai taught, why should they need to make any effort to achieve enlightenment: eiheiji monastery, zazen combined with rigorous study and physical labour, posthumously ordained lay people.

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