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Lecture 2

NURS1011 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Nuclear Family, Nurse Practitioner, Interprofessional Education

Course Code
Marilyn Williams

of 7
NURS 1011 - Lecture 2, Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 Lecture Notes
September 20, 2016
A Review of historical and Contemporary Nursing Practice
Nursing History
Who is Florence Nightingale?
Florence Nightingale is one of the first nursing researchers, she was also one of the first nursing
theorists. She published information she observed and studied during the Crimean War, and is
credited with hand washing.
What value does looking at historical research have on nursing today? What are the
Nursing historical research develops in depth analysis of complex relationships, creates an
enhanced understanding of the past, and informs the future. The societal context in which
nurses work is constantly changing, this has an impact on their work environment. The value
that looking at historical research has on nursing today is not only can you look at the in depth
analysis of complex relationships within the field and profession, you can also look at past
achievements, analyses and research that went on in the field while thinking about the larger
picture of what the social, political and economic events were at the time and what the
implications were that they had on shaping nursing practice and nurses themselves. By looking
at the historical research it allows you to compare and contrast the context of the past research
with the economic, political and social environment that Canada is facing right now which
provides insight into current and future issues that might pop up later on. This creates a better
understanding of the past and has implications on policy development, because looking at the
past informs us of our future and what we are trying to accomplish.
What are trends in the writing of nursing history and where are we in developing nursing
The trends in the writing of nursing history began with a focus on the progression of nursing in
the areas of professionalism, education and leadership. The area of professionalism covered
the profession itself, while education covered training programs and leadership. Historians
sie the ’s eaied ho as osidered a urse ad hat ostituted ursig ork.
Nowadays, we are more focused on care issues and best practice.
Who were the early nurses and where did they provide care?
The early nursing care delivery system consisted of lay women who were just every day wives
ad others ho proided are i their ouities i people’s hoe, first atios oe,
and women from religious groups. The lay women cared for their families, but also went in the
communities that they lived in and cared for others as well. First nations women also
constituted some of the first early nurses, as they were there for the formation of society and
had the knowledge required to care for white people in the communities because they knew
more about them.
Who were the first nursing educators and why was this so?
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Women from religious groups were some of the first nursing educators. This was so because
the role of women in this era was to take care of her family, and there as’t suh a separatio
of religion and state, therefore nuns were able to fill in roles for education as they did not have
the same obligations to family as the lay women did.
Who are the nurses now?
The nurses now are Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses/Registered Practical Nurses,
Registered Psychiatric Nurses and Registered Practical Nurses.
What are Registered Nurses?
Registered nurses are regulated health care professionals who work in different domains of
nursing practice such as direct care, education, administration and administration. Registered
nurses are registered within a regulatory body.
What are Licensed Practical Nurses/Registered Practical Nurses?
Licensed Practical Nurses/Registered Practical nurses are regulated health care professionals
who work independently or in partnership with other individuals of the health care team to
provide health care services to individuals, families and groups of all ages. They are registered
in Ontario only, and licensed in all the other provinces.
What are Registered Psychiatric Nurses?
Registered psychiatric nurses are members of a distinct profession, they provide services to
individuals whose primary care needs relate to mental health and developmental health. They
are regulated in the western provinces only.
What nursing model was the first nursing school in St. Catharines, Canada established based
off of?
The first nursing training schools were modeled based off of Florence Nightingales nursing
model. They were apprenticeship programs with very little classroom based knowledge
involved. Students learned at the bed side by trial and error and through the guidance of other
nurses. There was no uniform curriculum which was followed.
Who made up the majority of nurses in the late 19th century?
Most nurses in the late 19th century were young, affluent, white women.
Who benefited from the model of the first nursing schools in Canada?
The people who benefited from the model of the first nursing training schools in Canada were
hospital administrators. This model provided them with free student labor.
What was the main focus of university degrees for nurses starting off as diploma programs
then moving on to university degrees?
University degrees replacing diploma programs was done to bring in management positions and
educator positions, because someone was needed to train nurses.
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Why did they want to register nurses and why did they want a registration list of nurses?
They wanted to register nurses and have a registration list of nurses because this distanced
nursing work from domestic caregiving roles and because registration meant that nurses
qualifications were legitimate and documented. This also established public trust because they
knew that the care that they received were from legitimate, registered nurses who were well
trained to provide services, which assured the public and separated nursing work from
domestic care giving and distanced registered nurses from people who simply called
themselves a nurse.
How does registration vary among provinces and what is the purpose of registration bodies?
Registration varies from province to province and such takes on different forms since
registration was established in different provinces during different times. The purpose of
registration bodies and acts is to set out the conditions that nurses need to register in their
home province.
Why did the Yukon not start registering nurses until 1992?
We do not know the answer, it could be because there may not have been enough nurses, it
may be that the populatio as too sare up util that poit, or ae there ere’t eough
qualified nurses to get together and register.
Where has nursing worked over the years and what value has this brought to the profession?
Nursing has worked in various settings over the year such as with the militia and with the
mounted police. The value that this has brought to the profession is that the events which
happened in the past such as the wars and the nurses involvement with these events have
contributed to the value and trust that people place on nurses because in many of these
circumstances nurses risked their well being to treat and care for others out of selflessness.
What is an example of a setting where nursing has been over the years?
An example of a setting where nursing has been over the years is nurses participating in the
Canadian Armed Forces on the front lines of war.
What was the focus of the early nursing environment and where was nursing practiced?
The focus of the early nursing environment was on community based nursing, before we went
to a more hospital based nursing system, nurses worked predominantly in home care
environments with clients who could pay for the services. Nurses also worked with the
government in the early stages of health promotion initiatives, in these instances they would
create the initiatives and collaborate with the government to help shape health promotion in
the community on things like influenza, venereal diseases and mental and social hygene. The
health promotion that the nurses did helped build trust in nurses.
How did the focus of the early nursing environment switch from predominant home care to a
hospital based setting?
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