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Lecture 8

PSYC1003 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Cochlea, Basilar Membrane, Hair Cell

2 pages68 viewsFall 2016

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Dr.Harald Taukulis

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Perceptual consistencies: stable perception amid changing stimuli
Optical illusions: discrepancies between visual appearance and physical reality
Muller-Lyer illusion: two lines the same length with arrows pointing different ways at the
end- one looks longer than the other
Ponzo illusion: judging an object’s size based on its background
Poggendorf illusion: connecting two lines between a rectangle
The Ames Room: room where one person looks huge and the other tiny; both are same
Impossible figures: cannot exist in reality
The Auditory system:
Stimulus: sound waves
Amplitude: loudness- sound pressure measured in decibels (db)- db increase= louder
Wavelength: pitch- measured in circles per second (Hz)- frequency increase= pitch increase
Purity: timbre
Absolute threshold: function of both sound pressure and frequency (about 2000Hz)
Sensory adaptation: adaptive significance (getting used to sounds in familiar environment) helps
us identify strange sounds
Outer ear: pinna
Middle ear: ear drum, ossicles
Inner ear: cochlea- fluid filled, coiled tunnel containing hair cells (the auditory receptors) lined
up on basilar membrane
Theories of hearing:
Place theory: different places have different pitches
Frequency theory: the auditory nerve fires at different frequencies
Traveling wave theory: reconciles place and frequency theories; whole basilar membrane
moves, but waves peak at particular phases, depending on frequency
The brain on music:
1. Cognitive/emotional function: conveys feelings, a form of self-expression; helps us
understand thoughts and emotions; can influence our perception of emotions
2. Social/cultural function: social relatedness/cohesion; evolutionary theory- work songs,
war songs, lullabies, national anthems, etc.
3. Physiological/arousal function: mood regulation; music therapy; decreased cortisol levels
and increased dopamine levels
Music is distracting- exercise, studying, impaired driving
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