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Lecture 2

SCMA*1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Data Visualization, Scatter Plot, Bar Chart

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Henk Brand

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Week 2: Business Statistics Chapter 2 Kevin Lu
Descriptive Statistics: Tabular & Graphical Displays
Frequency Distribution:
- Frequency distribution is a tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of
observations in each of several non-overlapping categories or classes.
- The objective is to provide insights about the data that cannot be quickly obtained by
looking only at the original data.
Relative Frequency:
- The relative frequency of a class is the fraction or proportion of the total number of data
items belonging to the class.
- A relative frequency distribution is a tabular summary of a set of data showing the
relative frequency for each class
Percent Frequency Distribution:
- The percent of a class is the relative frequency multiplied by 100.
- A percent frequency distribution is a tabular summary of a set of data showing the
percent frequency for each class.
Bar Chart:
- A bar chart is a graphical display for depicting qualitative data.
- On one axis (usually the horizontal axis), we specify the labels that are used for each of
the classes.
- A frequency, relative frequency, or percent frequency scale can be used for the other
axis (usually the vertical axis).
Pareto Diagram:
- In quality control, bar charts are used to identify the most important causes of
- When the bars are arranged in descending order of height from left to right (with the
most frequently occurring cause appearing first) the bar chart is called Pareto diagram.
Pie Chart:
- The pie chart is a commonly used graphical display for presenting relative frequency and
percent frequency distributions for categorical data.
Frequency Distribution Three Steps take to define a class:
1. Determine the number of non-overlapping classes
2. Determine the width of each class
3. Determine the class limits
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