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FCSS*1010 (11)
Lecture 4

FCSS*1010 Lecture 4: Poverty

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Greg Nepean

Chapter 2: Wealth Poverty Defining Poverty: Absolute Poverty: do not have enough of the basic requirements (food, shelter, access to healthcare) for physical survival Relative Poverty: people survive but living standards are far below general living standards of the societysocial group they belong to Measuring Poverty: LowIncome Cut Offs (LICO): calculated to reflect income required for a family to purchase basic essentials necessary for survival Measure of absolute poverty Not considered by Stats Canada as a poverty line Defined for categories of community and family size so differences in costs of necessities among different community and family sizes is recognized LowIncome Measures (LIM): based on one half of median gross income (first adjusted for family size and composition) If your income is less than of the middle of the pack, you are low income Unlike the LICO, this is based directly on income Using LIM approach to counting number of poor persons in Canada, rather than the LICO, reduces poverty by 23 MarketBasket Measure: based on basket of market priced goods and services and income needed to purchase the items Defines and measures poverty in absolute, nonrelative terms Replaces a comparative measure of poverty (LICO) with an absolute market basket measure Impacts of Poverty: Lack of access to a sustainable livelihood People are forced to make hard choices between necessities like food, shelter, clothing etc. Education Lowincome children experience reduced motivation to learn, delayed cognitive development, lower achievement, less participation in extracurriculars, interrupted attendance, lower university attendance, higher drop our rates etc. Health Higher rates of mental health issues, stress, mortality 20 higher in poor neighbourhoods Material deprivations (housing, sanitary conditions) Nutrition More likely to purchase cheap but filling foods that may not meet all nutritional requirements or go without food altogether Quality of foods is lower Higher rates of cholesterol, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity Food Insecurity Food banks serve people at risk of being poor, older single people, loneparent families, people with disabilities, indigenous people Food hampers only provide enough food for 5 days and most banks only allow access once per month Nutritional value of food banks foods is dubious due to need to avoid perishable foods Prolonged malnutrition can lead to medical problems Why do we Accept Poverty: Ideology: a relatively coherent set of interrelated beliefs about society and the people in it
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