BIOL 1010U Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Nuclear Membrane, Golgi Apparatus, Nuclear Pore

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21 Jun 2018
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BIOL 1010 and BIOL 1011 - Lecture 2
- Introduction to Cells -
Assigned Readings in Textbook:
Chapter 1 (section 1.3) – The Cell (pages 12 to 15)
-Cell is the simplest entity – can exist as independent unit of life
-Most bacteria spend life as single cells
-Cells that make up layer of skin – 100 microns (0.1 mm in diameter)
-First essential feature of cell – ability to store/transmit info. Requires reliable archive of info – help
determine structure and metabolic activities
-Ability to reproduce
-Info archive is DNA – directs formation of proteins
-Existing proteins create copy of DNAs info in form of RNA – synthesis of RNA from DNA called
transcription
-RNA molecule is read to determine building blocks needed to create a protein called translation
-Pathway from DNA to RNA (mRNA) to protein called central dogma (basic flow of info in cell)
-Another feature of DNA – easily replicated – each strand serves as a template for new strands
-Errors in DNA can/do occur – called mutations
-Second essential feature of cell – plasma membrane – separates living material from non-living
environment – controls movement of materials in and out of the cell
-Nucleus houses cell’s DNA
-Cytoplasm is space outside of nucleus
-Most prokaryotes are single-celled
-Eukaryotic exist as single cells in yeast or multi-cells in humans
-3 domains of life: bacteria, archaea, eukarya
-Third essential feature of cell – ability to harness energy from environment
-Organisms acquire energy from the sun and chemical compounds
-Metabolism – chemical reactions
-All organisms use chemical reactions to break down molecules – energy stored in form of ATP
-Viruses have stable archive of info surrounded by protein cost or lipid envelope – can infect cell by binding
to cell’s surface – integrates into DNA or host cell
Chapter 1 (section 1.4) – Evolution (pages 15 to 19)
-Natural selection
-Variation within population – variated can be inherited (provide raw material for evolution)
-Variation among individuals – due t differences in environment (environmental variation)
-Genetic material transmitted from parent to offspring (genetic variation) – arises from mutation – random
errors during DNA replication of environmental factors (UV radiation)
-Related species resemble each other more than distantly related species
Case 1 – The First Cell (pages 25 to 27)
Chapter 5 (section 5.3) – The Internal Organization of Cells (pages 100 to 104)
-All cells have plasma membrane carrying genetic material – some housed in the nucleus
-Prokaryotes lack a nucleus – while eukaryotes have a nucleus – allows separation during transcription and
translation
-DNA is concentrated in nucleoid
-Bacteria have additional molecules called plasmids – transfer bacteria through pili (pilus)
-Eukaryotes are much larger than prokaryotes
-DNA is transcribed to RNA in the nucleus
-Organelles divide cell contents
-Endoplasmic Reticulum – where proteins/lipids are synthesized
-Golgi apparatus – modifies proteins/lipids – acts as sorting station
-Lysosomes – contain enzymes that breakdown macromolecules (proteins, carbs)
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-Peroxisomes – breakdown fatty acids and synthesize types of phospholipids
-Mitochondria – harness energy for cell
-Cytoskeleton – helps cell maintain its shape
-Chloroplasts – convert energy from sunlight to chemical energy
-Cytoplasm – jelly like internal environment surrounding organelles in the cells
Chapter 5 (section 5.4) – The Endomembrane System (pages 104 to 111)
-Many cells communicate with each other – either physically connected (membrane bridges) or transiently
connected by vesicles
-Interconnected membranes make up endomembrane system – nuclear envelope, ER, golgi apparatus,
lysosomes, plasma membrane and vesicles
-In plants – endomembrane system is continuous between cells – connecting pores – plasmodesmata
-System separates interior and exterior
-When vesicles and a plasma membrane fuse – exocytosis – provides way for vesicles to empty its
contents – to deliver proteins
-Can work in reverse – vesicle can bud off from plasma membrane – endocytosis
-Innermost organelle – nucleus – stores DNA
-Nuclear envelope defines boundary of nucleus – contains two membranes – inner and outer membrane –
consists of lipid bilayer
-Continuous with each other at openings – nuclear pores
-Transfer of info encoded by DNA depends on movement of mRNA
-Ribosomes – site of protein synthesis
Chapter 5 (section 5.5) – Mitochondria and Chloroplasts (pages 111 to 112)
Chapter 10 (section 10.2) – The Cytoskeleton (pages 200 to 206)
Chapter 10 (section 10.4) – The Extracellular Matrix (pages 210 to 213)
PART 1: Complete the ASSIGNED READINGS in Textbook
Read Case 1: The First Cell – Life’s Origins and make your own notes (in space below):
Rocking surfaces are covered in colonies of mucus-producing bacteria – survive by capturing
energy released as they oxidize hydrogen sulfide gas existing in the cave
Produces sulfuric acid as a by-product – creates oozing slime (snottites) from cave walls – as
corrosive as battery acid
Extremophiles – Live in places humans and animals cannot survive and produce snottites
Scientists accept that life arose from non-living materials – process called abiogenesis
Molecular systems presumably existed somewhere between the living and the non-living
All cells require an archive of information, membrane to separate the inside of the cell from its
surroundings, and the ability to gather materials and harness energy from environment
Modern cells information archive – DNA (instructions needed for cells to grow, differentiate and
reproduce)
Smallest genome – Carsonella rudii (contains 160, 000 DNA base pairs)
Scientists believe that RNA stored information in early cells, rather than DNA
Living things must have a barrier to separate from environment (all cells individually enclosed by
cell membrane)
2
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Document Summary

Biol 1010 and biol 1011 - lecture 2. Chapter 1 (section 1. 3) the cell (pages 12 to 15) Cell is the simplest entity can exist as independent unit of life. Most bacteria spend life as single cells. Cells that make up layer of skin 100 microns (0. 1 mm in diameter) First essential feature of cell ability to store/transmit info. Requires reliable archive of info help determine structure and metabolic activities. Info archive is dna directs formation of proteins. Existing proteins create copy of dnas info in form of rna synthesis of rna from dna called transcription. Rna molecule is read to determine building blocks needed to create a protein called translation. Pathway from dna to rna (mrna) to protein called central dogma (basic flow of info in cell) Another feature of dna easily replicated each strand serves as a template for new strands. Errors in dna can/do occur called mutations.

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