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Pulmonary Histology Epi

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BIOL 1840U
Peter Cheung

Pulmonary Histology I. Embryology a. Surface epithelium derived from endoderm b. Blood vessels, smooth mm, connective tissue derithd from mesoderm th c. Appears as evagination of endoderm during 4 week; developed by 4 month of gestation II. Innervation a. Parasympathetic—(vagus) causes sm. mm. of airways to contract b. Sympathetic—causes airway sm. mm. to relax c. Catecholamines, epinephrine, bronchodilators—cause dilation (relaxation) of bronchioloar sm. mm III. Blood Supply a. Pulmonary Arteries—supply deoxygenated blood to lungs for O2 b. Pulmonary Veins—carry oxygenated blood back to heart c. Bronchial Arteries—carry oxygenated blood to nourish lungs d. Lymphatics—found in regions of substantial connective tissue IV. Pleura a. Visceral pleura—dense connective tissue membrane; i. Provides air-proof barrier; prevents over-inflation b. Mesothelium—simple squamous epithelium coating both pleural surfaces V. Lung Components a. Trachea: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (oriented cilia); - goblet and brush cells - underlying basement membrane (lamina propria) w/ developed elastic layer - extensive smooth muscle layer - submucus (& serous) glands secreting glycoprotein, lipid, sufomucin, mixture - mucous tissue, and nearly complete U-shaped cartilage b. Bronchi: like trachea but cartilage is less complete c. Bronchiole: simple columnar/cuboidal cilated epithelium with Clara cells; - no mucus glands, goblet cells or cartilage; - continuous muscle coat - always accompanied by branch of pulmonary artery - Terminal bronchiole: last portion of bronchiole with no alveoli -
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