BIOL 1840U Lecture Notes - Bradykinin, Granule Cell, Lamellar Granule

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29 Jan 2013
Pulmonary Histology
I. Embryology
a. Surface epithelium derived from endoderm
b. Blood vessels, smooth mm, connective tissue derived from mesoderm
c. Appears as evagination of endoderm during 4th week; developed by 4th month of
II. Innervation
a. Parasympathetic—(vagus) causes sm. mm. of airways to contract
b. Sympathetic—causes airway sm. mm. to relax
c. Catecholamines, epinephrine, bronchodilators—cause dilation (relaxation) of
bronchioloar sm. mm
III. Blood Supply
a. Pulmonary Arteries—supply deoxygenated blood to lungs for O2
b. Pulmonary Veins—carry oxygenated blood back to heart
c. Bronchial Arteries—carry oxygenated blood to nourish lungs
d. Lymphatics—found in regions of substantial connective tissue
IV. Pleura
a. Visceral pleura—dense connective tissue membrane;
i. Provides air-proof barrier; prevents over-inflation
b. Mesothelium—simple squamous epithelium coating both pleural surfaces
V. Lung Components
a. Trachea: pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (oriented cilia);
- goblet and brush cells
- underlying basement membrane (lamina propria) w/ developed elastic layer
- extensive smooth muscle layer
- submucus (& serous) glands secreting glycoprotein, lipid, sufomucin, mixture
- mucous tissue, and nearly complete U-shaped cartilage
b. Bronchi: like trachea but cartilage is less complete
c. Bronchiole: simple columnar/cuboidal cilated epithelium with Clara cells;
- no mucus glands, goblet cells or cartilage;
- continuous muscle coat
- always accompanied by branch of pulmonary artery
-Terminal bronchiole: last portion of bronchiole with no alveoli
-Respiratory bronchiole: immediately follows terminal bronchiole; some
alveoli bud off sides; open into alveolar ducts
d. Alveolar duct: connects respiratory bronchiole to several alveoli
e. Alveolus—simple squamous epithelium sitting on very thin basement membrane
(0.5 um)
-Type 1 (aka lesser) alveolar cells: cover majority of surface, squamous
-Type 2 (aka greater) alveolar cells: large round surfactant-producing cells,
contain lamellar bodies
oSurfactant—contains lecithin & surfactant proteins A, B, C, D
-Alveolar macrophage: patrols air-facing side of alveolus;
VI. Cell types
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