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Gas Exchange I & II

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BIOL 1840U
Peter Cheung

Gas Exchange I & II I. O2 & CO2 transport in blood a. Carried mainly in chemical combination i. Blood can carry more than in a physical solution ii. Content isn’t linearly related to partial pressure b. Oxygen i. Bohr Effect—chem. interactions that facilitate unloading of O2 in tissue; when CO2 is added (at tissues), pH↓ => ↑ dissociated O2 (right shift) 1. ↑Temperature, ↑P CO2, & pH↓ => rightward shift ii. O2 content in blood = bound O2 + dissolved O2 O2 Content = C =O2 *CO2 max+ 0.003*P O2/dl Cmax= max amount of O2 that can combine with Hgb c. Carbon Dioxide i. Haldane effect—chem. interactions facilitating CO2 unloading at lungs; ↑HbO2 at lungs => ↓ pH => rightward shift of CO2 dissociation curve => facilitates unloading at lungs ii. CO2 principally transported as bicarbonate d. Bohr & Haldane effects make CO2 & O2 transport mutually dependent! II. CO2 & O2 Exchange a. CO2—very simple! i. Amount removed = amount produced V =V *F CO2 a ACO2 ii. Alveolar PCO2 determined by balance between alveolar ventilation & CO2 production iii. Arterial PCO2 is indicator of adequacy of alveolar ventilation—direct relationship! (Eg: doubling Ventilation => ½ CO2) b. O2 Exchange i. Respiratory Quotient—RQ = V CO2/V O2presents CO2 production & O2 consumption in tissues 1. APPLIES STRICTLY TO TISSUE METABOLISM ii. Respiratory Exchange Ratio— R = V CO2/V O2presents CO2 excretion & O2 uptake at lungs; at rest ~0.8 (↑ during exercise) 1. APPLIES STRICTLY TO VENTILATION iii. For homeostasis, R = RQ c. Alveolar Air Equation i. PAO2= P
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