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BIOL 1840U (44)

Control of Ventilation

2 Pages

Course Code
BIOL 1840U
Peter Cheung

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Control of Ventilation (Raymond has removed an image showing a block diagram of respiratory control.) I. Response to Changes in PO2, PCO2 a. O2—mediated exclusively by peripheral chemoreceptors i. Carotid bodies—site of peripheral chemoreceptors; also sens. to PCO2 & pH; found at bifurcation of common carotid arteries; 1. changes in output correlate w/ minute ventilation rates 2. glomus (type I) cells—principle output cells from carotid body 3. sustentacular (type II) cells—largely support structure b. CO2—mediated by central & peripheral chemoreceptors i. When hypoxia is coupled w/ hypercapnia (high CO2) response ↑ ii. Central chemoreceptor system is main mediator of hypercapnic response iii. PCO2 response is much faster & stronger than pH response c. pH—mediated by central & peripheral receptors but MAINLY CENTRAL i. CSF surrounding brainstem is main chemoreceptor 1. changes of pH in CSF are very rapid, but imbalances take a long time to get to the brain (=> several days) II. Reflexes & sensory Receptors a. Sense presence of irritants via sensory receptors placed in different locations b. Reflexes i. Reflexive coughing, sneezing, swallowing reflexes ii. Dive reflex—causes breathing to stop when H2O is directed towards face c. Sensor Types i. Slowly adapting receptors (SARs)—major contributor to Hering Breuer Inflation reflex; continue to fire for a time after change in lung volume ii. Rapidly adapting stretch receptors (RARs)—mediate coughing, mucus production, & bronchoconstriction iii. Un-myelinated (slower conducting) receptors—mediate pulmonary chemoreflex (bradycardia, hypotension, & apnea) in response to chemicals iv. Hering Breuer Inflation reflex—shows influence of vagus; when inflate
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