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Histology—Endocrine Glands I

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BIOL 1840U
Peter Cheung

Histology—Endocrine Glands I. Pituitary Gland a. Adenohypophysis i. Pars tuberalis—“collar” of cells around neural stalk ii. Pars Intermedia—cells surround colloid-filled follicles iii. Pars Distalis (Anterior Lobe)—major part of pituitary b. Neurohypophysis (Posterior Lobe)—derived from base of brain i. pars nervosa (infundibular process) ii. infundibulum (neural stalk) iii. composed mainly of ~100,000 unmyelinated nerve fibers whose cell bodies reside in hypothalamus iv. secretes ADH & oxytocin, which are synthesized by the cell bodies w/in the brain & travel down the axon (via neurophysins) to neurohypophysis for storage v. Herring bodies—thickened terminals at end of axons where hormones (neurosecretory material) is stored c. Vasculature i. all capillaries are fenestrated (blood brain barrier doesn’t exist in pituitary) ii. contains a portal system = hypophyseoportal system (allows hormones from neurohypophysis to affect adenohypophysis) d. Cells of Adenohypophysis i. Chromophils 1. Acidophils—small w/ distinct dark nucleus; EM: largest granules a. Somatotrophs—secrete GH or somatotropin b. Mammotrophs (Lactotrophs)—secrete prolactin (PRL) 2. Basophils—larger & can usually see golgi apparatus a. Thyrotrophs—secrete TSH b. Gonadotrophs—secrete LH & FSH c. Corticotrophs—secrete ACTH ii. Chromophobes—little affinity for common stains II. Adrenal Glands a. Cortex—synthesis & secretion of androgens, glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids i. Origin—mesoderm (along w/ gonads & kidneys) ii. Composed of 3 different layers 1. Zona glomerulosa—makes aldosterone (mineralocorticoid); cells are grouped into small irregular clusters 2. Zona fasciculata—makes glucocorticoids (cortisol); cells arranged in fairly straignt cords w/ capillaries between them 3. Zona reticularis—makes sex steriods (androgens); cells in cords
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