BIOL 2050U Lecture Notes - Multiple Myeloma, Antibody, Thymus

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30 Jan 2013

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IMMUNE SYSTEM- protects host from diverse microorganisms and products
-responds to anything perceived as foreign
-attacking “self” = autoimmune disease
Pathogens (smallest largest)
1. Virus (HIV) 2. Bacteria (Staph) 3. Fungi (pneumocystic carini) 4. Parasites (African
Antigens-substances to which specific immune responses are made (diversity of responses)
Antibodies-proteins that bind specifically to antigens (secreted by B-cells)
-millions, b/c of special genetic mechanisms for the generation of diversity
Effector Mechanisms-after recognition, deals with foreign antigen. (differs by pathogen)
Characteristics of Adaptive (aquired) Immune Response
Specificity-response depends on specific pathogen
Memory-response to a pathogen is remembered to elicit a faster response if pathogen is encountered
Problems of Adaptive Immunity
-Slow to develop (few days vs. rapid replication rate of microbes)
-Somatically generated diversity (not inherited)
-Random specificities (can lead to “self” attack
Characteristics of Innate (natural) Immunity
Rapid, Less Specific
-keeps pathogen in check until the AI response matures
(Immune system evolves slower than microbes)
Goals of “Layered” Immune System
1. Skin and Mucosol surfaces = barrier
-depends on tight junctions and secreted antimicrobial substances (muc, acid, defensins, lys,
lipids, etc)
2. Innate Immunity rapid response with little specificity to hold infection in check (days)
-depends on phagocytic cells and “complement”
3. Adaptive Immun highly specific and effacious
-depends on lymphocytes (1012) with very specific surface receptors
(a) B-Lymphocytes (bone marrow origin) make Ab (Immunoglobulins)
(b) T-Lymphoctes (thymus origin) secrete hormone like mediators (cytokines) to regulate other
* “Somatic Evolution” allow lymphocytes to adapt to ind. evolving microbial threats*
*Innate and Acquired Immune Systems depend on each other*
-lymphocytes specifically target effector mechanisms of innate immunity
-AI needs intact II for appropriate activation and targeting
-Immune responses occur in context of complex anatomical structures (ex: lymph nodes, spleen)
-Diseases of immune system affect 10-20% of US population
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