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Lecture 4

CHEM 1010U Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Ionic Compound, Chemical Equation, Electrolyte


School
UOIT
Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1010U
Professor
ifa
Lecture
4

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Chemistry 1010 Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Sept 22, 2014
Precipitation reactions:
Soluble reactants produce insoluble products
Ex lead nitrate with potassium iodide
Most precipitation take place when anions and cations of two ionic compounds change
place
Acid Base Neutralization reactions:
Acid + Base = water and an ionic compound termed a salt
Recall:
Acid – produce H+ ions
Base – produce OH- ions
Neutralization reactions therefore produce H2O by removing H+ and OH- ions from
solution (HCL(aq) + NaOH(aq)-> H2O(l) +NaCl
Oxidation Reduction Reactions:
Also known as a redox reaction
One or more electrons are transferred between reaction partners (atoms, molecules or
ions)
Charges on atoms change
Mg +2HCL -> MgCl2 +H2
Mg atom gives an electron to each of 2H+ ions
Mg2+ and H2 are leftover
Mg goes from 02+
H+ goes from 1+0
Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution:
Electrolytes: Substances which dissolve in water to produce conducting solutions of ions.
Produce Electricity
NaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Nonelectrolytes: Substances which do not produce ions in aqueous solutions. Won’t produce
electricity
C12H22O11( s) C12H22O11(aq)
H2O
H2O

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Chemistry 1010 Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Sept 22, 2014
Strong Electrolytes: strongly dissociates- has a lot of ions – can conduct electricity easily
KCl (aq) K+(aq) + Cl- (aq)
Weak Electrolytes: - weakly dissociates - Wont conduct electricity really well
CH3CO2H(aq) H+(aq) + CH3CO2-(aq)
Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations
Molecular Equation: All substances in the chemical equation are written using their complete
formulas as if they were molecules.
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) +2KI(aq) 2KNO3 (aq) +PbI2 (s)
Molecular
compounds
Weak acids &
bases
Strong Bases
Strong Acids

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Chemistry 1010 Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Sept 22, 2014
Strong electrolytes Precipitate
Ionic Equation: All of the strong electrolytes are written as ions.
Ex: Pb(NO3)2 (aq) +2KI(aq) 2KNO3 (aq) +PbI2 (s)
= Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3- (aq)+ 2K+ (aq) +2I- (aq) -> 2K+(aq) +2NO3- + PbI2 (s)
Net Ionic Equation: Only the ions undergoing change are shown.
Ex: Pb(NO3)2 (aq) +2KI(aq) 2KNO3 (aq) +PbI2 (s)
= Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3- (aq)+ 2K+ (aq) +2I- (aq) -> 2K+(aq) +2NO3- + PbI2 (s)
=Pb2+ (aq) +2I- (aq) -> PbI2 (s)
Example 1: What is the molar concentration of Br- ions in a 0.225 M aqueous solution of
FeBr3, assuming complete dissociation?
Example 2: Aqueous HCl reacts with zinc metal to yield hydrogen gas and aqueous zinc
chloride. Write a net ionic equation for the process.
Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
1. A compound is probably soluble if it contains one of the following cations:
Group 1A cation: Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+
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