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Lecture 4

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EDUC 3750U
Jennifer Laffier

September 27, 2012  The body is mapped out on the brain --> open-brain surgery  Parietal lobe o Like wearing earmuffs --> two bands on your head  Occipital lobe --> at the back of head o Vision center  Frontal lobe --> executive function o The parent in your brain o Planning, executing behaviour, decision making, learning from mistakes, morals (right and wrong), logical thinking, rationalizing emotions  Broca's area --> speech and pronunciation  Speech is all over the brain  Female brain handles speech differently than the male brain  Just the left for male, but both sides for females  Males need more visual, kinesthetic  Females more capable of communication because more part of the brain is dedicated to that  Temporal lobe --> o Wernicke's area --> speech and auditory o Most hearing is on left side (left ear) o Damage to left ear can caused deafness, but not so much for right side o Broca vs. Wernicke  Broca --> hard time formulating speech but can understand  Pronouncing speech --> a story would come out garbled and nonsensical  Wernicke --> you can understand but can't formulate  Understanding speech  Can speak normally, but wouldn't notice anything --> hard time understanding  Cerebellum --> can cause death if we damage it o Controls heart rate, breathing, balance, movement  Spinal cord o Brain stem --> arousal, flow of info from body to brain o RAS --> reticular activating system  Arousal --> sleep, sexual, etc. --> triggers around 12-13 years old  Limbic system o Controls emotion --> center of human brain  Primitive part of brain o Primitive humans had large limbic systems, small frontal lobes and thick skulls o Now our limbic systems are smaller, frontal lobes have become larger and skull has thinned to accommodate size  Humans are ruled by limbic system (ruled by emotion), but then frontal lobe steps in to control  We are born with an overabundance of neurons o Depending on what you do in your early life makes a difference with how many connections you make o Depends on experience, otherwise brain will begin to prune away o As many different types of experiences as possible  Myelination - new cells called glia form and nourish the neurons with fatty tissue called myelin sheath o Covers the axon of neurons --> the thicker it is, the faster action potentials (faster transmission) o Omega 3 fatty acids improves the thickness of myelin sheaths  Mostly found in walnuts and salmon o What pokes holes in myelin sheath, thins it  Severe dieting and eating disorders  Alzheimers and MS patients  Drugs and alcohol use, marijuana use  Chronic drug abuser, alcohol user --> chronic (10 years, 20-25 drinks a week)  Mannerisms are slow --> delayed response; need to process information longer  Walk slower, everything is delayed because transmissions aren't as fast anymore  Depending on age, you might be able to fix it  More plasticity when we're younger  But if there are holes on the myelin sheath, we can't fix it, we can't repair; can't rebuild  We can only PREVENT, or stop the thinning from happening again --> Omega 3 fatty acids  Not confirmed with cigarettes o Same path of myelination for everybody in the world  Critical periods of development --> depends on where it was myelination  Newborns --> vision and motor skills  2-3 years old - langua
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