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Lecture 6

Lecture 6

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EDUC 3750U
Jennifer Laffier

November 1, 2012 Reading Linguistic development complex; need to have working knowledge of many words, be able to articulate individual vowel sounds, consonents, blends of consonant (th, bl) most langages share certain characeristics suc as rules for forming negatives and asking questions - some linguists believe that the ability to acquire language is 'hard wired' Connectionist theorists later challenged that view, suggesting that there is no hard wiring or language acquistition device, but rather there is an ability to detect patterns and calculate probabilities; children pay attention to patterns related to language Sensitive period - age range during which a certain aspect of a child's development is especially susceptible to environmental conditions - children can master verb tenses and flawless pronunciation if they are exposed to a language within the first five to ten years of life; vocabulary acquisition doesn't begin to slow down until mid-teens By the times kids begin school at age 5 or six, they use language that seems adultlike in many respects. Over the years, there are changes in receptive language and expressive language Receptive language - the ability to understand the language that one hears or reads Expressive language - the ability to communicate effectively through speaking and writing aspects of linguistic development - phonology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics phonology (sounds of a language) and sensitivity to the rhythmic and melodic qualities of language (prosody) and perception of phonemes or individual speech sounds - infants are aware of these before they're born and it plays a role in learning to read Development of phonological awareness allophone - variations of a single phoneme that do not make any difference to a word's meaning children's phonological sensitivity continues to develop during the preschool years, enabling most children to master the phonology of new languages until they are well into the primary grades Online lecture  Social Development o Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Learning  Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)  One of the first educators that pointed out that you shouldn't dismiss the value and impact that a student's culture, environment and home life have on learning  Believed in the impact of culture o Social constructivism  The process by which knowledge is actively created through social relationships and interactions  Constructivism: Children create their own knowledge  They don't just soak up information and know it  Experiences and beliefs impact what we think  We relate what we learn to what we already know -> we look for patterns and ways for us to store information  Social constructivism: our social interactions help construct our knowledge  Influenced by environment and culture  The connection between language and thought  Zone of proximal development -> each child possesses a zone of learning abilities, the lower end being what they can accomplish on their own and the higher end being things they can do if they have received help from older or more knowledgeable individuals  How will you use this theory to help students?  Bottom end -> what they can do on their own; top -> what they can do with help  Where are you? Targeting the lower end where they can do on their own? Or are you at the top, challenging them to reach their best potential?  We want to be teaching to the top end -> this is how you motivate children -> keep them engaged  Tools for intellectual development  Scaffolding  Challenge kids -> but give them assistance  We need to know where kids come from so we can instruct them  The process of adjusting instruction so that it is responsive to a beginner's behaviour and supports the beginner's efforts to understand a problem or gain a mental skill  As the child grasps the skills the support is removed  Don't want to keep hovering over them -> need to promote independent learning skills  Use "Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down" -> scaffolding is always adjusted, depending on the kids  Some kids need more scaffolding, more support -> differentiated learning  For gifted kids, too much scaffolding is frustrating  You need to gauge your kids to judge how much scaffolding is enough  Our environment impacts our learning process  The child  Cultural values, beliefs, traditions  Social interaction with parents, siblings, peers, teachers  Language and communication skills  Language and thought  Language and thought develop separately then begin to merge around age 4  Kids will talk out loud -> "I'm going to play with this doll. I'm going to play with this, nope, let's put that over there"  Self-directed language -> a GOOD sign of development  Language and communication with others, comes before internal thought processes  To be able to think something and do it without talking out loud is a difficult skill  Kids with ADD, ADHD, autism, Aspergers haven't quite developed self- directed speech -> they will talk out loud, they haven't quite mastered internalization  Self-guidance-children talk to themselves to guide their behaviour (They do not have internal speech abilities yet)  Play promotes self-guidance speech  Eventually they act without verbalizing -> internalization has occurred  By grade 2 all students should have internalization  Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) - Low to high  Cannot complete task by self  With verbal help from skilled peer-scaffolding  With guided assistance from skilled peer (scaffolding)  Internalization: can now do by myself (scaffolding removed)  How does this knowledge affect my teaching and what are the implications in the classroom?  Changes the way to treat children -> not chastising them for talking to themselves out loud  Kids need to be able to balance new culture and old culture when they're immigrants -> otherwise they may develop mental health issues  Need to hold onto and respect old culture and develop skills of new culture  Do you give opportunities to reflect on old culture? To help them rediscover it? o The Millennial Student  Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation by Neil Howe and William Strauss
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