ENVS 1000 – Environmental Science - Winter 2013 - Assignment # 6
This Assignment is worth 5% of your final mark in ENVS 1000
Assignment # 6 is due by Thursday April 11, 2013 (by 5 p.m.)
through the Blackboard Assignment Box.
NAME: ____________________________ STUDENT #: _____________
INTERPRETING TOXICITY INFORMATION
As you complete this Assignment, answer the following questions IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Keep
answers brief and concise. (Note: You do not need to use all of the space provided for each question)
Use the resources provided in this Assignment, the posted slides for Lecture 21 on Environmental Health
hazards; also refer to your Textbook (Chapter 19 in Withgott et al. (2013)).
1. Review the posted Powerpoint slides for Lecture 19 and Chapter 19 (pages 614-615) in your Textbook.
(a) distinguish between LD and ED (in your own words):
- LD 50
Toxic amount required to kill 50% of organism that are being tested/ population
- ED 50
Toxic amount required to affect 50% of organisms that are being tested/ population
(c) give one advantage for using animals as test organisms (instead of human subjects)
-Can test a multitude of things without killing/affecting humans
(d) give one disadvantage for using animals as test organisms (instead of human subjects)
- Animal research testing is objected by some people and may not always give the results that can
be seen in humans
2. Go to the website - http://www.business.u-net.com/~freya/risk/ld_frame.and answer the following
(a) using the Oral L50values, rank the 6 „comparison chemicals‟ (shown in bold print) from the most toxic
to the least toxic:
Kerosene, Nicotine, Gasoline, Caffeine, Aspirin, Table Salt,
(b) from the Oral L50 values, which herbicide (normal non-bold print) is most toxic? Paraquat (c) From the Oral L50 values, which herbicide (normal non-bold print) is leastFoasmine Ammonium
(d) assuming that humans react in the same way as the small mammals (mice) tested for the from the LD
Toxicity Table (on the right), how much of each of the following chemicals would need to be eaten in
order for kill 50% of a population of humans with an average weight of 150 lb? (hints: use the calculator
on the left side of the website and watch your units!!)
- atrazine 209.56 grams - caffeine 13.06 grams
- glyphosate 293.93 grams - nicotine 3.61 grams
(e) what is the brand-name of the chemical „glyphosateRoundup
TOXIC CHEMICALS IN EVERYDAY LIFE
- EXPOSURE THROUGH YOUR PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS -
3. Choose 3 personal care items that you use and list them below – then look at the labels and list the top
three ingredients (if available) in each these products
# Product Ingredients
Softsoap Black Orchid Water
1 body wash Sodium Laureth Sulfate
L’Oreal Evercreme Water
2 Shampoo Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate
Sodium Lauryl Sulfoacetate
Benefit “They’re Real!” Water
3 Mascara Paraffin
4. Based on the video “The Story of Cosmetics”, answer the following questions:
(a) How many personal care products are used daily bywomen - 12 men - 6
(b) How many of the chemicals in personal care products have be assessed for safLess than 20%
(c) What health problems are linked to cosmetic chemicals?
(2) Learning disabilities
(3) Asthma (4) Decreases sperm count
(d) What mindset contributes to the widespread and accepted use of chemicals in cosmetics today?
Toxins in, toxics out and the mindset that people want to live better and better looking with
chemistry without thinking about the consequences.
5. Complete the following table listing „the dirty dozen‟ – 12 potentially toxic chemicals found in many
personal care products. In this table, briefly summarize the purpose and potential health effects associated
with each of the 12 chemicals.
# Chemical Reason for Use in Personal Care Products Potential Health Effects