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HLSC 1201U (14)
Elita P. (13)

A&PII Ch 20 - Blood

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Health Science
HLSC 1201U
Elita P.

Ch 20Blood Composition of blood - In normal blood, RBCs make up approximately 45% - Hematocrit: Percentage of RBCs by volume in blood - In anemics, RBCs may go down to 20% - Blood plasma: liquid part of blood; clear, straw-coloured fluid composed of 90% water and 10% solutes - Solutes: 6 – 8% of plasma solutes are proteins, consisting of three main compounds: almbumins, globulins, and fibrinogen - Albumins: Help maintain osmotic balance in blood - Globulins: Essential component of the immunity mechanism - Fibrinogen: Key role in blood clotting factors - Plasma proteins have an essential role in maintaining normal blood circulation Red blood cells - Most numerous of the formed elements - Biconcave discs (no nucleus, no organelles) - Primary component is hemoglobin (Hb): primary function of RBCs is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide - Hemoglobin has four peptide chains, each with a heme group binding to 1 or 2 molecules - Each RBC has 250 mil Hb molecules, and binds to 1 bil O2 molecules - CO2 is transported in RBCs too: majority as HCO-3 ions and minority bound to Hb - Carbonic anhydrase – enzyme that converts CO2 into carbonic acid which dissociates to HCO3- ions - Erythropoiesis – RBC formation - In RBC destruction, iron is resused and transported back into bone marrow, bilirubin Blood types Rh blood types - Rh-positive (Rh antigen on RBCs) = A + A antigen + Rh antigen - Rh-negative (no Rh antigen on RBCs) = A – A antigen + no Rh antigen White blood cells - Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils mature in red bone marrow (+ few lymphocytes and monocytes too) - Most lymphocytes and monocytes develop from hematopoietic stem cells in lymphatic tissue Granulocytes - Neutrophils: phagocytic cells with granules containing lysosomes (digesting enzymes); neutrophils are freely circulating, capable of diapedesis (ability to leave the blood vessel) - Eosinophils: weakly phagocytic, mainly release chemicals; many in respiratory/digestive mucous epithelia, help protect against parasitic worms; release chemicals as a flag to invite other cells to attack disease - Basophils: cytoplasmic granules containing histamine and heparin; basophils motile and capable of diapedesis Agranulocytes - Lymphocytes are the smallest WBC - T lymphocytes directly attack an infected or cancerous cell - B
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