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altered cell environment summary.docx

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Health Science
HLSC 2460U
Otto Sanchez

Altered Cell Environment Ends in View  Edema Alterations in Tonicity Alterations in K & Ca  Acid/Base Balance What is edema?  an excessive accumulation of fluid within the interstitial spaces (too much water in that space) To understand this, we have to go back to anatomy.. How is the fluid in the interstation regulated?  Green stars on slide 4  Capillary w/ an arteriole and venule (capillary bed)  a cell is supposed to receive water and nutrients from the capillary What pressures regulate the amount of water that`s supposed to be in the interstition?  Capillary hydrostatic pressure  water that comes into the capillary from the arteriole)  this pressure pushes the water as a filtrate into the interstation  the higher the BP the more filtration, lower and lower  it is all dependent on BP  Capillary Oncotic Pressure  what is oncotic pressure? —osmotic pressure induced by proteins in the plasma  in the venules, there are a lot of proteins in the plasma  these proteins exert some osmotic pressure to attract water back into the venule from the interstation this induces reabsorption of the water that was filtered back INTO the venule  this is dependent on the concentration of proteins in the plasma, NOT BP!  low protein in plasma = low oncotic pressure therefore less water reabsorbed. In conclusion …  these 2 pressures regulate the movement of water from the arteriole into the insterstition then back into the venule ... like a constant shower!  this filtered water brings nutrients and the reabsorbed water gets rid of waste What About the Lymphatics??  the role of this is to pick up any excess of interstitial fluid that the venule did not pick up  when this get reabsorbed, it is called lymph Net Pressures  capillaries will filter water into the insterstition and the venous capillary will reabsorb (physiology) Why Can Edema Happen  increased capillary hydrostatic pressure; whenever there is too much pressure inside the capillaries, for example when there is too much salt OR heart failure, there will be excess filtration of the water into the interstation, fluid movement into the tissue, causes edema (blood vessels with TOO much hydrostatic pressure, may be veins or arteries) decreased capillary oncotic pressure; whenever there is a decrease in the amount of plasma proteins, there will be a decrease in oncotic pressure, therefore edema because there will not be enough osmotic pressure to attract the water to be reabsorbed back into the blood vessel (this may happen in liver disease, as well as malnutrition!) increased capillary permeability; whenever there is vasodilation or whenever the blood vessels have been damaged (burns), too much water escapes, plasma proteins are lost, both combine to produce edema lymphatic obstruction; some diseases in which this happens, lymph nodes are damaged by tumor or inflammation (most common cause), then you will see an excess of interstitial fluid that was supposed to be reabsorbed by lymph will not be reabsorbed Important Terms  Lymphedema; edema caused by lymphatic obstruction,  Pulmonary edema; when it happens, water accumulates in the alveoli, causes death fast because it impedes the alveoli Pleural/Pericardial effusion; edema not in the interstitial face but it’s in the cavities Pleural; the lungs, accumulates in the pleura Pericardial; effusion in the pericardial cavity  Ascites; effusion but in the peritoneal cavity  Dependant edema; edema that occurs in the areas that are lower in the gravity, if they’re sanding and they may get edema in their legs and feet, laying down edema in back and buttocks  Pitting edema; when a person is swollen and you touch it your handprint stays  Third space edema; implies that there can be edema in the first space and second space (which are the intravascular and extravascular compartments), third space is another compartment where there is normally not a lot of water such as in the intestine (obstruction), can cause dehydration  Cerebral edema; happens often after trauma, ve
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