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cardio one disorders summary.docx

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Health Science
HLSC 2461U
Otto Sanchez

Cardiovascular Disorders One Vascular Disorders Thrombus: A blood clot inside of a blood vessel Embolus: A thrombus that breaks free from the blood vessel and travels Thrombophlebitis: thrombosis associated with phlebitis (inflammation of the vein)  Normally, blood only coagulates when it leaves the blood vessel. In this case, clotting is happening in an intact blood vessel (not ruptured)  An arterial thrombosis will cause distal ischemia (this is critical)  Thrombosis is a huge problem in atherosclerosis Causes of Thrombosis * atherosclerosis * blood turbulence or stasis (stasis in the veins of the legs, turbulence in the arteries, particularly where the arteries divide such as the abdominal aorta into the two femoral arteries) * vasculitis (whenever blood vessels are inflamed) * infections of the blood vessels (in the heart especially, bacteria attacks blood vessels of the heart) For example: a thrombus that forms in the femoral artery, it blocks the lumen, ischemia of the whole leg, sometimes the thrombus can break and travel (embolus), travels further down the leg and block the posterior tibial artery and cause ischemia of the foot (gangrene) Types of Embolus 1. Thromboembolus: thrombus that has detached 2. Air: injecting air into the vein, travel, block blood vessel/capillary, scuba diving if they ascend really fast “the bends”, bubbles cause pain in the joints 3. Amniotic Fluid: during delivery, liquid goes into blood vessels instead of exiting vagina, end up in lung, produce respiratory difficulty after birth in the mother 4. Fat: goblets of fat, femur (hip fracture), in the bone marrow there is fat, the fat of the broken bone escapes and go into the blood stream, goes to the lungs 5. Foreign bodies 6. Bacterial: blood/heart, bacterial vegetations Common Embolic Conditions 1. Pulmonary thromboembolism: commonly caused by venous thrombophlebitis 2. Atrial Fibrillation: causes turbulence of the blood (thrombi, detach) 3. Aortic Aneurysms: whenever aneurysms happen in this area, form turbulence that will cause thrombosis and these will detach and block the big arteries in the legs, causing claudication (person cannot walk because they have ischemic pain in the muscles of the leg) 4. Fat Embolism: after hip/femur fracture Disorders of the Veins Varicose Veins: also called varicies, dilated veins in the legs that happen often with aging we have superficial veins and deep veins (can happen in both) predisposes to blood stasis because the valves don’t work properly What causes varicose veins? : defective/incompetent valves that stop working, valves are supposed to prevent back flow of venous blood (if they don’t, blood pools), normally veins blood flows upwards, in varicose veins the blood flow is altered, veins become dilated, valves get deformed, skin starts to bulge Complications of Varicose Veins DVT: varicose veins can happen in deep veins, deep veins are responsible to drain venous blood from the legs, if you have this there will be no blood flow taking the venous blood out of the feet/legs, this will cause edema of the feet, cyanosis (venous blood will remain in the feet), chronic ischemia (slow down microcirculation which affect muscles and skin causing hypoxia) Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PTE); embolus will follow venous circulation (femoral veinsinferior vena cavaright atriumR ventriclepulmonary arteryblock capillariesclots end up in the lungs) Venous Leg Ulcer; one of the problems of DVT is chronic hypoxia which will weaken the muscles and affect the integrity of the skin & nerves, wounds tend not to heal, produces large wound, ulceration Disorders of the Arteries Aneurysms: permanent alterations in the diameter of the arteries (most commonly in the segments), creat
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