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Cardiovascular Disorders Three Summary.docx

3 Pages

Health Science
Course Code
HLSC 2461U
Otto Sanchez

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Cardiovascular Disorders Three Summary Valvulopathies  diseases of the valves  2 atrialventricular (mitral) and 2 in the great vessels (pulmonary & aortic valve) 1. Stenosis  narrowing of the valves/valvular rings  doesn’t open fully, passage of blood is impeded (finds more resistance)  when closed, they can close completely or incompletely Example: in the mitral valve (the most common one), blood has difficulty passing from L atrium to L ventricle, happens during ventricular diastole, L ventricle will not be fully filled, when it contacts (systole), CO is decreased as well as SV b/c there is not enough blood to be pushed away, downstream there will be incomplete filling of the cavitiespressure in the L atrium will increase (blood is stuck there), size of L atrium will increase 2. Insufficiency/Incompetency  when a valve closes and it doesn’t close completely  valve will allow retrograde flowing of blood Example: in aortic valve, when it closes during ventricular diastole, blood will leak back into the left ventricle 3. Valvular Prolapse  prolapsed mitral valve: when the valve closes (during systole), normally closes tightly but in this case one of the leaflets blooms up into the left atrium  leaflet pushing into the left atrium can increase the pressure in the L atrium (arrhythmias), pressure in subendocardium Acute Rheumatic Fever  result of an infection (heart disease)  nodules grow in the borders of the leaflets causing an inflammatory reaction  causes valvular insufficiency/incompetence  strep throatGroup A betaamyolytic strepantibodies formbind to similar antigens in the heart (called molecular mimicry)  can cause endocarditis, myocarditis (alter contractility), pericardium (thickening, restrictive cardiomyopathy) ** strep throat to heart failure (cause by the immune reaction, group A strep stays in the pharynx) *** also attack other organs and produce a syndrome (joints, polyarthritis, carditis) Congenital Heart Defects  anatomical malformations of the heart that happen during development 2 Types  cyanotic: R to L shunt (R is venous blood=high CO2, left=arterial, rich in O2)  non-cyanotic (L to R shunt) * when blood mixes, it’s called shunting (abnormal communications between R & L cavities of the heart) Causes  Mom had Rubella in the first trimester  ionizing radiation  diabetes  increased maternal age  prematurity Persistent Ductus Arteriosus  communicates pulmonary artery with aorta  usually closes  when it hasn’t in two weeks, it causes PDA  not a big deal, arterial blood from the aorta during systole will go back into the pulmonary arteries instead of the aorta  L to R shunt (backwards, pink baby)  aterial blood is contaminating venous blood Septal Defects  holes that are
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