Class Notes (838,347)
Canada (510,861)
UOIT (1,700)
Lecture

digestive disorders 1.docx

7 Pages
86 Views
Unlock Document

School
Department
Health Science
Course
HLSC 2461U
Professor
Otto Sanchez
Semester
N/A

Description
Digestive Disorders 1 Common Disorders of the Esophagus GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease)  Stomach has HCl, mucosa is protected in the stomach but the stratified squamous epithelium in the esophagus doesn’t have the same protection from the mucous  when the sphincter doesn’t work well, there can be reflex (heartburn, GERD)  continuous exposure of acid will cause changes in the mucosa (erosive esophagitis)  esophageal stricture can be produced when esophagitis is chronic and causes the formation of scars  when our cardius doesn’t work well, there can be reflux  chronically, this is called GERD  can form ulcers in the esophagus, commonly caused by GERD and be aware that in some parts of the world there is esophageal  esophageal ulcers could also be cancer so they should be removed and biopsied  most esophageal cancers are in the lower third of the esophagus which is where ulcers also caused by GERD may also be Hiatal Hernia  Some people with GERD all the time  Reason may be anatomical (hernia through the hiatus which is a hole in the diaphragm)  esophagus communicates with the stomach through this hole  stomach slides upward over diaphragm Sliding: part of the fundus of the stomach slides upwards so that cardias (sphincter is above the diaphragm=reflux all of the time, ischemia of the stomach wall) Paraesophageal: small portion of the stomach is herniated = ischemic  Clinically manifests as GERD…needs to be surgically corrected Common Disorders of the Stomach and Duodenum Gastritis  inflammation of the mucosa of the stomach  left is the normal mucosa of the stomach  upper right corner = a lot of inflammation (acute gastritis), erythema, mucosa still continues (no alteration), pain, increased mucous and gastric acid production = reflux  lower right corner = beginning of hemorrhages/ulcers, chronic, ulcer = mucosa discontinues, mucosa dies  causes pain and an increased production of mucus and gastric acid  can also cause a bit if reflux  once it gets worse you will start to see little hemorrhages  formation of ulcers  ulcer is when this mucosa discontinues Ulcers  almost like a crater/hole in the mucosa  mucosa around the hole is inflamed (folds disappear), also no mucosa in the actual hole  depending how deep the ulcer is, symptoms differ (submucosa = veins and ulcers)  ulcer can be very deep  remember the different layers of the stomach: mucosa, submucosa, muscle, serosa  depending on how deep the ulcer is there will be different symptoms  submucosa: they will bleed because there are many veins/arteries  may have GI bleeding/hematemesis (throwing up blood)  inflammation can go so deep it can start to destroy the muscle/serosa  can perforate and communicate internal stomach peritoneal cavity = perontonitis (chemical), or pneumoperitoneum (some air in the stomach gets into peritoneum) Duodenal Ulcers  can be caused by the same thing as gastric ulcers  ulcer has interrupted the mucosa, forming a crater  compromise submucosa and muscle  if this keeps going, can cause perforation/hemorrhage  ulcers are benign  if you compare gastric & duodenal ulcers, duodenal bleeds easier because the wall of the duodenum is thinner & close to bigger arteries The process that leads to ulceration  commonly caused by things that produce inflammation in the stomach (alcohol)  aspirin (antiinflammatories produce chemical irration of the stomach = gastririts)  bile salts (liver secreted in duodenum), normally no bile in the stomach unless we get reflux = gastritis  ischemia, once in a while the stomach gets this, causes gastritis (car accident, bleed a lot, ischemia everywhere)  In gastritis, the stomach produces a lot more pepsin, acid and histamine (acids)  causes mucosa to erode  vasodilation  all of these increase the ability to the mucosa to evade injury  bacteria H pylori Stomach Cancer  most commonly adenocarcinoma (glands of the mucosa of the stomach)  preferred locations: lower part of the stomach  east asians most likely related to diet  less chemicals in food = less stomach
More Less

Related notes for HLSC 2461U

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit