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CHAPTER _13.docx

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PSYC 1000U

INTRODUCTION The motor system consists of all our muscles and the neurons that control them The spinal cord contains certain motor programs for the generation of coordinated movements and that these programs are accessed executed and modified by descending commands from the brain Motor control is divided into two partsThe spinal cords command and control of coordinated muscle contraction The brains command and control of the motor program in the spinal cordTHE SOMATIC MOTOR SYSTEM The muscles in the body can be described according to two broad categoriesSmooth o Lines the digestive tract arteries and related structures o Innervated by nerve fibers from the ANS o Plays a role in peristalsis and the control of blood pressure and blood flowStriatedthere are two types of striated muscles o Cardiac muscleis the heart musclecontracts rhythmicallyinnervations of the heart from the ANS functions to accelerate or slow down the heart rate o Skeletal muscleConstitutes the bulk of muscle mass in the bodyFunctions to move bones around jointsIs enclosed in a connective tissue sheath that forms tendonsContains hundreds of muscle fibers each innervated by a single axon branch from the CNS see Fig 133Derived from 33 paired somitesControlled by the somatic motor systemUnder voluntary control and it generates behaviour Consider elbow joint see Fig 132Movement in the direction that closes the knife is called flexion o The muscles that cause flexion are called flexors Because they work together they are called synergistsMovement in the direction that opens the knife is called extension o The muscles that cause extension are called extensorsFlexors and extensors pull on a joint in opposite directions and are antagonists Muscles that are responsible for movementsof the trunk are called axial muscles o important for maintaining postureof the shoulder elbow pelvis and knee are called the proximal muscles o important for locomotionof the hands feet and digits are called the distal muscles o important for specialized manipulation of objects
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