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Psychology - Chapter Three Lecture Notes.docx

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Criminology and Justice
PSYC 1000U
Leigh Harkins

Psychology – Consciousness (Chapter 3) Forms of Consciousness –  Some of the different states of consciousness can be done simultaneously  Some different types of consciousness can be induced in other ways o Chemical imbalances o Food or oxygen starvation  With everything that we know about the brain we still do not know how to create consciousness  We know that some people believe that it arises because of specific neurons firing Dual Processing – o Information that we take in can be simultaneously be processed at a conscious and unconscious level o Conscious – High Road o Unconscious – Low Road Selective Attention o Focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus o We are all on a regular basis taking in so much information o Sights, sounds, smells  If we took in all this information at once it would be too much  Selectivity where we choose to set our attention o We only have a limited amount of cognitive resources Change Blindness –  To be conscious of something is more than just being awake  We must be paying attention to something to be conscious of it  In ability to see someone in our midst because our attention is focused on something else True or False?  When people of dreaming or engaging in an activity their limbs move in line with the dream? o False  Older adults sleep more than young adults o False  Sleepwalkers are acting out their dreams o False  Sleep experts treat insomnia with the occasional sleeping pill o False  Some people dream every night; other seldom dream o False Biological Rhythms and Sleep – Circadian Rhythm -  When light hits the eye it releases proteins  As the day goes on and the light activated protein is reduced the suppression stops and more melatonin is produced and tells us we should sleep  As morning approaches our body temperatures increase  We tend to have peaks throughout the day  If we give people bright light at night time that increases the suppression of your melatonin and does not let you sleep  Occur on a 24 hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness  Known as our biological clock – can be altered by artificial light Sleep –  Sleep is important and most of us are not getting enough sleep  Behavioural theory is the most effective treatment to treat insomnia Sleep Stages –  Rotation of about 90 minutes o We pass through a cycle of five distinct stages  The distribution of those cycles change over time  We can measure sleep in the following ways o Eye movement o EEG o EMG – looking at brain activity  Stage One – o When an individual closes their eyes but remains awake o His brains activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow regular alpha waves o Also occurs when meditating  Stage One and Two- o During early, light sleep o The brain enters a high amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves o Also occurs when day dreaming o In this stage people can be fairly easily woken up  Stage Three and Four – o during the deepest sleep o brain activity slows down o there are large amplitude – slow delta waves o difficult to wake people in this stage up o when someone has been through this stages they make their way back to stage one  Stage Five o REM – Rapid Eye Movement o After reaching the deepest sleep stage (four) the sleep cycle starts moving backwards towards first stage o Although these people are still asleep the brain engages in low-amplitude  Fast and regular BETA WAVES much like awake aroused state o When people are measuring bra
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